Analytical review of the most important events of a military-political, economic and social nature in Ukraine

Analytical review of the most important events of a military-political, economic and social nature in Ukraine

(from 01/04/2019 to 07/04/2019)

І. DOMESTIC POLICY

1.1. Presidential elections in Ukraine and events related to them.

1.2. The reaction of Ukrainian and international observers to the elections in Ukraine.

1.3. Poroshenko in 2018 earned almost 100 times more than in 2017.

1.4. Sociology of the week.

II. FOREIGN POLICY

2.1. The Treaty of Friendship of Ukraine with the Russian Federation has lost its force.

2.2. Lukashenko insists on deepening the union of the Russian Federation and Belarus.

2.3. Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church for autocephaly for Ukrainian Orthodox Church, but not for the “schismatic group”.

2.4. The United States approved a resolution calling for freedom of navigation in the Black Sea and supporting the abolition of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline.

2.5. The head of NATO put Hitler, Stalin and ISIL in one row.

III. ECONOMICS

3.1. State Statistics: in 2018, gas for enterprises was worth 20% more than in 2017.

3.2. The State Statistics Service said that during the year the income of Ukrainians increased by 21%.

3.3. One third of the recipients of cash subsidies did not settle with Kievvodokanal.

 

І. DOMESTIC POLICY

 

    1. Presidential elections in Ukraine and events related to them.

On April 7, on Sunday, the Central Election Commission announced the official results of the first round of presidential elections. According to the CEC website1, Vladimir Zelensky and Petro Poroshenko came out in the second round. Ten leaders of the presidential race look so:

 

Candidate

%

The number of votes

Vladimir Zelensky

30.24%

5 714 034

Petro Poroshenko

15.95%

3 014 609

Yulia Timoshenko

13.40%

2 532 452

Yuriy Boyko

11.67%

2 206 216

Anatoly Gritsenko

6.91%

1 306 450

Igor Smeshko

6.04%

1 141 332

Oleg Lyashko

5.48%

1 036 003

Alexander Vilkul

4.15%

784 274

Ruslan Kosulinsky

1.62%

307 244

Yuri Timoshenko

0.62%

117 693

The gap between Poroshenko and Tymoshenko was only 2.55%. Considering a number of possible falsifications on the part of the current president (a “grid” that was effective in villages and small towns, the presence of spoiler candidates in the list, the cancellation of the numbering of candidates in the list, the administrative resource, including the impact on the CEC), we can assume that fraud played a crucial role in these elections.

According to the vote distribution map2, according to which Poroshenko took the majority only in Lviv and Ternopil regions, and Zelensky won in almost all other regions, gaining votes twice the current president, it can be concluded that Zelensky has every chance of winning the second round of elections since his ratings are based on the protest electorate, which does not support either the current government or the opposition, and thus he has accumulated support around himself throughout the country.

Poroshenko won in a foreign constituency, gaining 39.93% of votes3. However, many Ukrainians abroad could not vote, since they were employed illegally. But, the second round of elections falls on the Catholic Easter, when many labor migrants (mainly from Western Ukraine) return to Ukraine, as a result of which the number of votes cast for Poroshenko may increase.

In fact, the second round will be a battle of anti-rating of candidates in which voters (especially supporters of candidates who have not passed the second round) will vote against the victory of the candidate to whom they have developed the greatest political antipathy.

Although agitation before the second round allowed CEC since April 8 (after the official announcement of the election results), Petro Poroshenko and Vladimir Zelensky exchanged a number of attacks that are precisely of an agitational nature: Vladimir Zelensky recorded a video message to Poroshenko to conduct the debates he actively wanted “Olimpiysky”4, and Poroshenko also in the video message agreed5. Both videos were not only posted on the Internet, but also shown on television, as the delivery of medical tests on the next day. As a result of which both candidates received their PR dividends and were actively discussed in the media space and in Ukrainian society.

The discussion regarding the date of the debate is 14.04 (Poroshenko insists) or 19.04 (Zelensky) also has a polytechnological context. The holding of debates on April 19 in anticipation of the "Day of Silence" (April 20) will not allow the current President to use his administrative and overwhelming information resource to disperse the message about the "victory over Zelensky".

    1. The reaction of Ukrainian and international observers to the elections in Ukraine.

The civil network “Opora” in the report noted a tendency to reduce the number of violations of electoral legislation in the last election. The organization stressed that on election day and during the counting of votes at polling stations, violations of the law were not widespread and could not significantly affect the final election results. “Opora” called the abuse of administrative resources, including the implementation of social and budget programs during the electoral struggle, a negative factor in the elections6.

OSCE observers noted that during the presidential elections in Ukraine everything went relatively calmly and there were no glaring violations7, and the Ambassadors of the G-7 welcomed such conclusions8.

ENEMO observers gave a positive assessment of the elections in Ukraine, noting that they were held transparently and efficiently, as well as in accordance with the legislation of Ukraine and according to international standards. The head of the mission, Zlatko Vujovic, said that minor irregularities and irregularities on election day did not affect the election results, although violations of the rules of agitation restricted fair competition among candidates. The report noted that in the campaign the problem of regulating the work of the media was one of the key ones, since it used black PR and discredit candidates9.

In a statement by the head of the delegation of the European Parliament, Dariusz Rosati, it was noted that the first round of the presidential elections in Ukraine was competitive, and the voting was held in a difficult context because of the situation in the Crimea and in the eastern regions10.

Lloyd Axworthy, Chairman of the Canadam Observation Mission of CANADEM, at a press conference noted11 that the elections were held honestly and freely, and they thus develop public confidence in democratic processes. However, she stressed the need to facilitate participation in the voting for internally displaced persons and residents of the annexed Crimea and the occupied territories.

The press service of Poroshenko reported that Angela Merkel, the German Chancellor, congratulated him on going to the second round12.

Thus, the world community recognized the results of the Ukrainian elections, since the elections themselves were held without serious violations. However, the observers' reports did not consider a number of black technologies that were very actively used in the election campaign by some presidential candidates to enter the second round, the effect of which could eventually become the determining result of the vote.

There was interference in the internal affairs of Ukraine:

-Johann Vadeful, deputy chairman of the CDU / CSU faction in the German parliament, a representative of the Christian Democratic Union party said that “Zelensky must specifically indicate before the voting three weeks before the vote what he is speaking for and which political team will support him. Ukraine cannot afford to rely on inexperienced leadership in the conflict with Russia and in its difficult economic and social situation. Zelensky must clarify how he wants to achieve his goal of fighting the oligarchs, since oligarch Igor Kolomoisky supported him during the election campaign”13.

-Kurt Volker, US State Department Special Envoy, asked several rhetorical questions: “Now the Ukrainian people have to make a choice. Do they want someone who simply opposes the system and promises broad reforms? Or do they want someone who may have disappointed them to some extent, but spent much more reforms than anyone in Ukraine over the past 20 years, and opposed Putin? "- thus making it clear that Ukrainians should vote for injured.

These statements indicate that politicians and centers of influence to which these politicians relate, would like to see in the second term of the presidency the already familiar and predictable Poroshenko, who will pursue an advantageous policy for them, and not a new person from whom they do not know what to expect. Such statements are impossible in the West, since these are direct attempts by foreign states to influence the internal affairs of a sovereign state, and they may indicate that the representatives of these countries do not consider Ukraine to be a sufficiently sovereign subject of international relations.

1.3. Poroshenko in 2018 earned almost 100 times more than in 2017.

In the declaration for 2018, filed by the presidents of Petro Poroshenko14, declared 1.56 billion USD. revenues (compared to UAH 16.3 million. revenues in 2017). According to the declaration, Poroshenko is the ultimate beneficiary of about 100 enterprises, saves more than $ 61 million, more than 2 million hryvnias, 7 thousand euros and 8 thousand pounds in banks; for the year he received 336 thousand salaries and more than 1.505 billion dividends.

At Poroshenko’s headquarters commented on this information15, explaining that the amount of income that the president declared increased so much because he had not received dividends for 3 years from enterprises whose final beneficiary is, and that amount is income for all this time.

The need to make public such a large amount (compared to previous periods) can be explained by the fact that during the election campaign (both presidential and parliamentary) for the reputation of the politican is dangerous to conduct black bookkeeping, since information about it can be made public and adversely affect the ratings policy. The scheme works by creating the illusion of successful investments: for example, securities are bought for "borrowed" money - and after (sometimes soon) large interest is paid on them. There is a possibility that this money can be used both for conducting the election campaign and preparing for an urgent withdrawal from the country.

1.4. Sociology of the week.

The Ilk Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Foundation and the Kiev International Institute of Sociology on April 4 published research results16, according to which 44% of respondents believe that debates between presidential candidates should be held before the second round, another 30% answered that the debate is desirable, only 18% considered them unnecessary. At the same time, 42% of respondents assured that in any case television debates will be watched if they are, and 31% answered that they will see if the discussion is interesting and informative (apparently, already in the record).

In the entire history of independent Ukraine, the favorites of the second round have debated each other only twice: in 1994 and in 2004. In 2010, Yanukovych did not come to the debate with Tymoshenko - and she agitated for herself for an hour and a half, and in 2014 there was no debate at all. It is worth noting that, for example, in the United States, debates since 1960 have been an obligatory part of the election of heads of state (within the country's political tradition), and their role is that elections can be won or lost based on the results of debates.

Considering that in Ukraine there were no debates between presidential candidates in the last two pre-election periods, BP deputies from Petro Poroshenko's block registered Bill 10168, which states that “in case of refusal of one of the candidates for the post of President of Ukraine, included in the ballot for re-voting, to take part in televised debates or the impossibility of his participation in them, The Central Election Commission immediately decides to cancel the registration of this candidate for the post of President of Ukraine"17. Obviously, the bill was written for the current head of state, who, by holding debates, expects to replay his opponent with the help of diplomatic skills and deep knowledge in the subject of public administration (not so long ago Zelensky proved himself incompetent in some topics18). However, there is not a single state in the world in which the debate would be obligatory, and in the case of refusal from which the candidacy of the one who refused, would withdraw from the elections.

On March 25, the results of a large poll of the KIIS, the Razumkov Center and the Sociological Group “Rating”19 were published, in which 15,000 respondents took part, and the statistical error was 0.8%. It modeled the results of the second round of elections, and in a pair of Zelensky-Poroshenko Zelensky gets 39% of the vote, and Poroshenko - 18%.

Sociologists of the Kiev International Institute of Sociology modeled in a poll from March 14 to March 2220 analyzed who will get the votes of the not passed candidates in the second round. According to the survey, in the second round, Vladimir Zelensky will be supported by 47.4% of Yulia Tymoshenko’s supporters, 91.7% of Anatoly Gritsenko’s supporters and 49.2% of Yuriy Boyko’s supporters.

Thus, it can be concluded that in the absence of “black swans” during the election campaign, before the second round, Vladimir Zelensky will win in it by a large margin.

1 https://www.cvk.gov.ua/pls/vp2019/wp300pt001f01=719.html

2 https://www.liga.net/politics/articles/pyat-grafikov-obyasnyayuschih-pervyy-tur-vyborov-prezidenta-2019

3 https://www.cvk.gov.ua/pls/vp2019/wp312pt001f01=719.html

4 https://www.facebook.com/zelenskiy95/videos/2220411848209179/

5 https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=325865271619503

6 https://www.oporaua.org/statement/vybory/vybory-prezydenta/vybory-prezydenta-2019/17453-zaiava-gromadianskoyi-merezhi-opora-shchodo-poperednikh-rezultativ-sposterezhennia-na-viborakh-prezidenta-ukrayini-31-bereznia-2019-roku

7 https://ukrainian.voanews.com/a/sposterihachi-obse-pro-vybory-v-ukrayini/4855883.html?utm_medium=affiliate&utm_campaign=VOA-player4855883&utm_source=kp.ua%2Fpolitics%2F634408-obse-o-vyborakh-v-ukrayne-vse-bylo-tykho&utm_content=player

8 https://twitter.com/G7AmbReformUA

9 http://www.enemo.eu/en/missions/ukraine-presidential-2019/303-enemo-assesses-that-the-election-was-conducted-in?fbclid=IwAR3eRQxk9nDZe1KQcMdCsvfV4o1M7sHfdqcJzWwvpWB5CadfLLBP8Dd9oPM

10 https://www.eurointegration.com.ua/rus/news/2019/04/1/7094645/

11 https://www.facebook.com/uacrisis.ua/videos/594759390992087/

12 https://www.president.gov.ua/news/petro-poroshenko-proviv-telefonnu-rozmovu-z-angeloyu-merkel-54506?fbclid=IwAR33xKiDgZcx8OS7kddPjqmmOWmnTY3ydizNlMPMBCKTQLMkjm_9bMXFQS0

13 https://gordonua.com/news/politics/zelenskiy-dolzhen-v-blizhayshie-tri-nedeli-konkretno-ukazat-za-chto-vystupaet-i-kakaya-komanda-ego-podderzhivaet-nemeckaya-parlamentskaya-frakciya-hdshss-857806.html

14 https://public.nazk.gov.ua/declaration/c1d19887-53fe-4f99-8cef-6cbe5155ccb2?fbclid=IwAR3C3Q0GZ5SBSF4w32NuWcOMUe52xY1RAqXvKTZ-x_pGaGmb3N1-JIPgU0M

15 https://pp2019.org/novini/zadeklarovanimi-dohodami-poroshenko-zabezpechuye-prozore-finansuvannya-kampaniyi-splativshi-vsi-podatki-rechnik-shtabu?fbclid=IwAR1YJD-UyV0gA1Qa9fSV3qQaDY-NIKDmwapY3nc7pEMjGsSmiVx0NQlaMaQ

16 https://dif.org.ua/article/debati-kandidativ-u-prezidenti-chi-potribni-voni-vibortsyam-i-pro-shcho

17 http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc4_1?pf3511=65707

18 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKTUCFyNjJk

19 http://ratinggroup.ua/research/ukraine/fbf79502c143988a988970c2d00bc940.html?fbclid=IwAR1jBPz-6a8BL6vaHB5CGmTyEJMFwrC6R23D6YaYTt00_BXL-oo64ZSZb34

20 http://www.kiis.com.ua/materials/pr/20190324_march/march.pdf

II. FOREIGN POLICY

 

2.1. The Treaty of Friendship of Ukraine with the Russian Federation has lost its force.

 

According to the Law on the termination of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership between Ukraine and the Russian Federation1, from April 1, 2019, the said document expires. It was signed between countries in 1997 by Presidents Leonid Kuchma and Boris Yeltsin, and was concluded for 10 years and automatically extended in 2008. According to the text, the parties pledged to respect each other’s territorial integrity and confirmed the inviolability of the existing borders between them at the time of signing the treaty. The treaty also covered a number of other economic and geopolitical issues (for example, non-participation in hostile alliances, which meant the non-entry of Ukraine into NATO).

Considering that the contract was based on mutual respect for borders and this, as well as its other provisions, were violated, its termination eventually only reflected the real state of things. It is unlikely that the termination of the treaty would somehow aggravate relations between countries: most likely, they will remain at the same level of sluggish conflict and can move from this point only in case of a change of power in the country and solving the issues of the Occupied territories of Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the Crimea.

 

2.2. Lukashenko insists on deepening the union of the Russian Federation and Belarus.

 

President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko said that the Belarusian-Russian integration should be deepened. He noted that it is necessary to further expand the Belarusian-Russian cooperation and eliminate artificial barriers in all sectors, and in particular, in the economy2.

This statement coincided with the decision of Russian President Vladimir Putin to give Belarus a state loan of $ 600 million to pay off Belarus’s debts to the Russian Federation (Belarus’s total debt to the Russian Federation is more than $ 6.5 billion).

For many years, relations between the countries have not been sufficiently diplomatic in the economic field: the Russian side has used economic pressure on Belarus many times to strengthen the integration of countries and to buy 50% of Beltrans shares by increasing gas prices and milk wars 2009, 2014 and 2016.

Lukashenko’s statement may be related to the cessation of the Russian side’s supply of oil and liquefied petroleum gas to Belarus from November 2018 to the end of 20193, which will greatly affect Belarus’s revenues from the sale of oil products (Russia is the main supplier of oil to the Mozyr refinery). Therefore, by deepening integration, the President of Belarus may try to agree on the restoration of these supplies.

 

2.3. Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church for autocephaly for Ukrainian Orthodox Church, but not for the “schismatic group”.

 

The Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church published a communiqué of the office of the Bishops' Council, stating that it was and remains a supporter of the granting of autocephaly to the Orthodox Church in Ukraine, stressing: “The autocephaly of the Church in Ukraine should be based on the dogmatic and canonical norms of the whole Church, not a group of schismatics. Departed from the Church, deprived of priestly ordination, cannot be part of a healthy church body. This non-canonical act violates Eucharistic and inter-Orthodox unity4.

Thus, it can be argued that the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church did not support the decision of Patriarch Bartholomew to provide Tomos to Orthodox Church of Ukraine of Kyiv Patriarchate not for political reasons or reasons for the distribution of influence among Orthodox churches (Patriarch Bartholomew by representatives of some other Orthodox patriarchs imputed "papacy"), and for reasons of violation of church dogmas, according to which the Orthodox Church of Ukraine of KP leader Filaret was an excommunicator who was excommunicated, and therefore his church was also divisive. Prior to this, the Serbian Orthodox Church stated that the only church it recognizes in Ukraine is the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate5. Therefore, there is a possibility that the OCU that received Tomos may remain in the status of a partially unrecognized church.

 

2.4. The United States approved a resolution calling for freedom of navigation in the Black Sea and supporting the abolition of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline.

 

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg said on April 4 that NATO foreign ministers approved a program to strengthen the alliance’s presence in the Black Sea region due to Russia's aggressive actions. Measures will include exercises for the naval forces and the coast guard, ship visits to ports and information exchange. On the same day, the US Senate Foreign Affairs Committee approved and recommended for approval a resolution calling for freedom of navigation in the Black Sea and supporting the abolition of the Nord Stream II gas pipeline. Senators called on Trump to urgently conduct a joint operation with US allies to ensure freedom of navigation in the Black Sea.

On April 5, NATO launched the Sea Shield 19th6 multinational naval exercises in the Black Sea, which will last until April 13.

After these events, the head of the Senate of the Russian Federation, Valentina Matvienko, stated that if the Kremlin had not annexed the Crimea, NATO ships would already have been there7.

Thus, the struggle for control over shipping in the Black Sea between the United States and the Russian Federation continues (especially after the annexation of the Crimea and the construction of the Crimean bridge, which led to Russia's actual control of the entire Kerch Strait), and in these conditions, the Kerch incident is only a cause and a catalyst for partial activation of political and sanction actions of the United States and NATO countries against the Russian Federation.

As for the support for the abolition of the construction of Nord Stream 2, stated in the resolution, this fits into the US economic strategy, according to which they plan to supply liquefied gas to the EU. The United States, represented by Vice President Mike Pens, said that the construction of Nord Stream II would make Germany hostage to Russia, and also called for increased defense spending8. In case of launching a new gas pipeline from the Russian Federation, their gas may become less competitive and demanded due to the price and the need for liquefaction. It is also worth noting that gas trade for the Russian Federation has always been more in the field of politics than economics, since Russia could, by raising or lower gas prices, incline its trading partners to political and economic solutions that were beneficial to it. This will mean the desire of the EU countries to have good relations with the Russian Federation to conclude more lucrative contracts (this trend is indicated by the fact that Germany, introducing sanctions against Russia, introduced them personalized, not against the whole country, as was done before).

 

2.5. The head of NATO put Hitler, Stalin and ISIL in one row.

 

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg in his speech on terrorism in the world and the need to increase defense spending mentioned Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin and ISIS terrorists, putting them in one row: “Hitler could not be stopped by peaceful protests. Stalin could not be stopped by words. ISIS could not be stopped by dialogue”. He also noted that "NATO was founded because the Allies were determined to resist the expansion of the Soviet Union," having received applause in response9.

This statement fits perfectly into the geopolitical confrontation of the United States with the Russian Federation: since the Russian Federation is the legal successor of the USSR, within the framework of the information war they put the responsibility on her for the crimes of the Soviet (and especially Stalin’s) regime. If earlier it was enough to de-Stalinize and dethrone the cult of Stalin, now, putting him on a par with Hitler and ISIS, his personality is equated to them. On the one hand, this may lead to Western demands for condemnation of Stalin by the Russian side as Hitler and terrorists equal in their crimes (the US sometimes uses the theme of Nazism to its advantage: for example, in 2015, during the growth of nationalist sentiments in Ukraine, USA together with Ukraine and Canada voted against the UN resolution on combating the glorification of Nazism, arguing that is politicization and the fight against freedom of speech)10, which naturally will not be done. On the other hand, this may be a way to dehumanize the Russian Federation in the eyes of Western European society as a country that does not condemn a person who is on a par with Hitler and ISIS.

1 https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2643-19

2 http://president.gov.by/ru/news_ru/view/obraschenie-k-belorusam-i-rossijanam-po-sluchaju-dnja-edinenija-narodov-belarusi-i-rossii-20799/

3 https://belaruspartisan.by/economic/441086/

4 https://www.orthodox.pl/komunikat-kancelarii-sw-soboru-biskupow-9/

5 https://www.interfax.ru/world/652419

6 https://twitter.com/USNavyEurope/status/1113390220966277122?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1113440694356664320&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pravda.com.ua%2Frus%2Fnews%2F2019%2F04%2F3%2F7211203%2F

7 https://tass.ru/politika/6304135?utm_source=twitter.com&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=smm_social_share

8 https://www.eurointegration.com.ua/rus/news/2019/04/4/7094769/

9 https://thehill.com/policy/defense/437161-nato-chief-tells-congress-alliance-has-also-been-good-for-the-united-states

10 https://tass.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/2455446

III. ECONOMICS

 

3.1. State Statistics: in 2018, gas for enterprises was worth 20% more than in 2017.

 

The data of the State Statistics Service indicated that gas for non-residential consumers in the second half of last year was on average 19.9% more expensive than during the same period in 2017. The average price of natural gas for non-residential consumers in the second half of 2018 was 11.01 thousand UAH. per 1 thousand cubic meters, which is 19.9% more than in the second half of 2017.

This could lead to the fact that the indices of the industry growth rate in February 2019 established an anti-record from 2015, falling to 1.8%. The recession has most strongly affected the chemical, textile industry, as well as the production of electrical equipment and metallurgy, that is, industries whose price of final products significantly depends on energy prices, with the rise in price of which the manufactured goods become less competitive and the demand for it decreases, that in the future leads to a decline in production.

 

3.2. The State Statistics Service said that during the year the income of Ukrainians increased by 21%.

 

According to the State Statistics Service, the income of the population of Ukraine in 2018 increased by 21.4% compared with 2017. During the last year, the total income of the population of Ukraine amounted to 3.2 trillion UAH, which is 21.4% more than in 20171.

In this case, the average salary in Ukraine as of December 2018 amounted to 10573 UAH. (compared to UAH 8777 in December 2017)2. Considering the inflation index in 2018, which amounted to 9.78%3, it is easy to calculate that the real growth of the average income in the country was 11.6%. Also, the indicator of wage growth does not consider the growth of retail prices, which are directly linked to the cost of energy and utilities in the country. For example, from November 1, 2018, the price of gas for the population was raised by 23%4, which directly affects the purchasing power of the population: in 2017, according to the IMF, Ukraine was in 114th place5, and in 2018 - already 1166.

 

3.3. One third of the recipients of cash subsidies did not settle with Kievvodokanal.

 

On the Kievvodokanal website, it was reported that after the start of monetization of subsidies, only 62% of consumers paid off with the company7.

Thus, the expected happened: a third of low-income citizens, having received monetized subsidies, spent them inappropriately, thus increasing the total debt of the population to pay for utilities. If before the state became a debtor, which did not transfer the difference of subsidies to the accounts of the companies-service providers in time, now individuals became debtors, and the amount of subsidies was transferred by the state in full. Also, taking into account state debts on subsidies to service providers for

1 http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/

2 https://index.minfin.com.ua/labour/salary/average/%D0%A3%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0

3 https://www.statbureau.org/ru/ukraine/inflation

4 https://gordonua.com/news/money/s-1-noyabrya-stoimost-gaza-dlya-naseleniya-sostavit-8550-grn-za-tys-kubometrov-nasalik-439363.html

5 https://bitly.su/UDBDVC

6 http://fincan.ru/articles/79_vvp-po-pps-na-dushu-naselenija-2018-stran-mira/

7 https://vodokanal.kiev.ua/news/shanovn%D1%96-spozhivach%D1%96!-ki%D1%97vvodokanal-nagadu%D1%94/