Cannabis legalization: global practice and Ukrainian realities

The issue of legalization of soft drugs in Ukraine over the past 5 years has become a permanent public and political discourse.

Indeed, according to the proponents of legalization, about one million cancer patients and tens of thousands of children with rare diseases need this pain reliever to relieve pain, treat epilepsy, movement disorders associated with multiple sclerosis, and is often prescribed to palliative patients. The Chairman of the 100% Life Charitable Foundation D. Sherembey noted: “An alternative to eight narcotic drugs is simple natural cannabinoid oil. There are 20,000 families with children suffering from epilepsy in Ukraine. Now they are prescribed narcotic pills that do not help them. And using cannabinoid oil on them can reduce seizures by 98%. ”

However, besides medical, there is one more reason - administrative and financial. October 16 Office of the President emphasized that during the 2010s, government policies on cannabis, in particular its medical form, were substantially revised in many countries. As a result, this will make it possible to bring out of the shadows a part of pharmaceutical products and the market of light drugs.

On October 25, one of the issues announced by President V. Zelensky was precisely about the legalization of medical cannabis in Ukraine. It is safe to point out that this was an attempt rather to solve the problem through a consultative survey, since the Office of the President stated that “without a clearly expressed opinion of the people, the corresponding discussion can continue for many more years, without reaching the level of decision-making, ”that is, there was a procedure of "shifting" the decision from the political and legal plane to the social one. The consequence was the aggravation of political debates in parliament and the deployment of new discussions in the Ukrainian media space. In May 2019, a corresponding petition appeared on the website of the President's Office, which received 25,000 votes. The petition was signed by 16 charitable foundations and public organizations, which proposed their own version of the relevant bill. All of them deal with the rights and problems of patients with serious illnesses: various forms of epilepsy, cancer, nervous system disorders and others. The consequence was the presentation of the bill to the Verkhovna Rada, but the deputies considered it. Under the walls of parliament, actions were repeatedly held demanding to legalize medical marijuana, however, The Interior Ministry has blocked changes to the government decree on the transfer of medical cannabis from the drug category. And although the poll on October 25 did not have any legal consequences from a legal point of view, the problem of legalization has again reached the legislative level. One of the main initiators of the bill on the legalization of medical cannabis in Ukraine, People's Deputy A. Opanasenko, and a deputy from the "Servant of the People" M. Zablotsky noted that 80% of the faction support this idea... In addition, this idea is supported by the majority of medical scientists and the Ministry of Health in the person of M. Stepanov.

The main reason behind cannabis bans is its chemical constituent. Cannabinoids are a group of terpene phenolic compounds derived from 2-substituted 5-amylresorcinol. To date, chemists have managed to extract 113 chemical compounds from cannabis, but the largest are tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. And although marijuana itself is prohibited, cannabidiol, like the extract from hemp, is used in medicine for pain relief and for treating a number of diseases. Much later, the analgesic properties were investigated in tetrahydrocannabinol, but it was this substance that was and is prohibited. The main reason for legal regulation is that THC is used both as a psychoactive substance and as a component in the preparation of drugs such as sensimilla and hashish. Parts of a hemp plant, not containing psychoactive substances (such as fiber and seeds), legal, and therefore a license to manufacture hemp products may be issued. In the United States, in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries, cannabis preparations were sold without restriction, which were used to treat migraines, stomach ulcers and other diseases. The psychoactive properties of tetrahydrocannabinol in the consumption of cannabis were introduced to Americans by Mexican immigrants. Cannabis has gained particular popularity among jazz musicians. In the early 1930s. There were several major lobbying campaigns, and the US Congress in 1937, against the recommendations of the American Medical Association, passed a law that taxed the marijuana trade so high that its use was effectively banned. He is next to hard drugs and strong hallucinogens, included in the federal list of dangerous and therapeutically useless substances.

In 1938, despite protests from many doctors, medical cannabis was withdrawn from use in the United States. This happened as a result of a large-scale anti-hemp campaign launched by V. R. Hirst and the pharmaceutical corporation "DuPont". The latter spoke exclusively from a business position, since only medicines can be patented, it is impossible to obtain a patent for hemp.

On March 30, 1961, the United Nations adopted the "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs", as a result of which "cannabis, cannabis resin, and cannabis extracts and tinctures" were included in Schedule I of the list of narcotic drugs, as "psychotropic narcotic substances". The Convention obliges countries to strengthen control over the cultivation of cannabis, recommended that countries completely ban its cultivation, seize and destroy illicit cannabis plantings. The convention planned to completely end the use of cannabis, other than for medical and scientific purposes, within 25 years of signing. Cultivation of industrial cannabis for fiber or seed production is not subject to the convention.

December 2nd UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs ruled out from point 4 of the Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the so-called "complete ban list" of dangerous substances. This UN recommendation was given by the World Health Organization. But the UN continues to view cannabis as a hazardous drug that is banned for non-medical use.

According to, the legal marijuana market in North America reached $ 12 billion in 2018, an increase of 30%. The largest was the United States market - $ 10.4 billion.According to existing estimates The illegal marijuana market in California is roughly $ 5 billion, followed by Canada with $ 1.6 billion. According to reports from Arcview Market Research and BDS Analyticspredictedthat by 2021 the legal marijuana market will grow to $ 40 billion.The Netherlands and Canada export medical marijuana. Israel has recently joined them. So,in January 2018 the country's government has passed a law that allows the export of marijuana. InterCure is a holding company of small medical firms that bought medical cannabis producer Canndoc last September and later hired former Israeli Prime Minister E. Barak as head of the company. In 2014, the Founders Fund, co-founder of PayPal P. Thiele, became the first institutional investor to invest in the legal marijuana industry. Founders Fund became a shareholder of Privateer Holdings, a company that specializes in investments for marijuana growers. Privateer Holdings later acquired the startup Leafly, a mobile app launched in 2010 that allows users to rate marijuana strains. Now it is the world's largest information resource dedicated to the topic of cannabis, which allows you to learn about legal marijuana strains and show legal and regulated dispensaries where you can buy cannabis on a map. In addition, Leafly publishes industry news, podcasts and videos. Some of the managers associated with tech companies aren't just investing in cannabis but are starting their own businesses. From 2009 to 2015, A. Gertner headed Google's Asia-Pacific sales in Singapore. In 2015, he founded Tokyo Smoke in Canada with his father to sell cannabis smoking devices, vaporizers and bongs. In 2017, the company was able to raise $ 10 million in investment and merged with Cannabis Company Limited. In addition, Leafly publishes industry news, podcasts and videos. Some of the managers associated with tech companies aren't just investing in cannabis but are starting their own businesses. From 2009 to 2015, A. Gertner headed Google's Asia-Pacific sales in Singapore. In 2015, he founded Tokyo Smoke in Canada with his father to sell cannabis smoking devices, vaporizers and bongs. In 2017, the company was able to raise $ 10 million in investment and merged with Cannabis Company Limited. In addition, Leafly publishes industry news, podcasts and videos. Some of the managers associated with tech companies aren't just investing in cannabis but are starting their own businesses. From 2009 to 2015, A. Gertner headed Google's Asia-Pacific sales in Singapore. In 2015, he founded Tokyo Smoke in Canada with his father to sell cannabis smoking devices, vaporizers and bongs. In 2017, the company was able to raise $ 10 million in investment and merged with Cannabis Company Limited. Gertner was the head of Google's Asia-Pacific sales in Singapore. In 2015, he founded Tokyo Smoke in Canada with his father to sell cannabis smoking devices, vaporizers and bongs. In 2017, the company was able to raise $ 10 million in investment and merged with Cannabis Company Limited. Gertner was the head of Google's Asia-Pacific sales in Singapore. In 2015, he founded Tokyo Smoke in Canada with his father to sell cannabis smoking devices, vaporizers and bongs. In 2017, the company was able to raise $ 10 million in investment and merged with Cannabis Company Limited.Gertner currently heads Hiku Brands Company, which includes DOJA, Tokyo Smoke and Van der Pop.... The structure of legal sales is dominated by the United States with a turnover of $ 10.5 billion (New Frontier estimates the illegal market at another $ 26.8 billion). In second place is Canada with a legal market of 1.2 billion.In 2017, almost $ 9 billion was raised in the United States from the sale of medicinal marijuana alone.According to analysts' forecast, US cannabis sales will continue to grow rapidly, but the global market will be driven by Canada and other countries. By 2022, the global legal cannabis market will double to $ 22.2 billion. Then a quantum leap in US sales is expected if the FDA regulates THC consumption at the federal level and companies get a new impetus for investment. In Australiaaccording to, by 2020, the number of hemp-based medicines quadrupled and brought in $ 1 billion to the treasury.Prohibition Partners - the European marijuana market is valued at € 20 billion by 2024: The potential medical cannabis market will reach € 2.25 billion, the potential recreational market value will reach € 0.15 billion. New Frontier Data estimates that the total value of hemp demand in Europe is $ 42.9 billion.

 

 

The problem of legalization of soft drugs appeared long ago and today we have the following result. The first country in the world to fully legalize marijuana was Uruguay. Only official bodies can sell it. Buy - can only be citizens over 18 years old, pre-registered in a special database. Foreign tourists are prohibited from buying and using marijuana. The second country in the world where cannabis is fully permitted is Canada. Medicinal hemp was legalized in 2001 when authorized patients were able to obtain a license to grow cannabis at home. On April 1, 2014, new regulations came into effect, the Medical Marijuana Regulation (MMPR) replaced the previous Medical Marijuana Access Regulation (MMAR). A licensing scheme was established in Canada, according to which authorized growers produce and sell dried and fresh hemp flower and hemp oil to patients with appropriate medical documentation. The Canadian Senate voted on June 7, 2018 to legalize recreational cannabis. The federal government legalized recreational cannabis on October 17, 2018, but left provinces and territories in control of distribution and sale. Federal legislation, along with strict regulations: Allow adults to have up to 30 grams of legally manufactured cannabis; allow adults to grow up to four cannabis plants per household; establish a minimum age for purchase and use at 18 years of age, with the option for provinces to increase the age limit; introduce a regulatory regime for licensed hemp production, which will be controlled by the federal government; provide a regulatory regime for the distribution and sale of cannabis, which would be controlled by the provincial government; and to establish new regulations to combat driving with limited drugs, as well as to make several changes to the general legal framework to regulate driving with alcohol impairments. As of October 2020, there are 507 federal license holders, including 401 growing licenses, 303 processing licenses, and 230 licenses to sell (medical) cannabis. and to establish new regulations to combat driving with limited drugs, as well as to make several changes to the general legal framework to regulate driving with alcohol impairments. As of October 2020, there are 507 federal license holders, including 401 growing licenses, 303 processing licenses, and 230 licenses to sell (medical) cannabis. and to establish new regulations to combat driving with limited drugs, as well as to make several changes to the general legal framework to regulate driving with alcohol impairments. As of October 2020, there are 507 federal license holders, including 401 growing licenses, 303 processing licenses, and 230 licenses to sell (medical) cannabis.Analysts predict that the volume in the area ultimately could be worth anywhere between $ 4.9 billion and $ 8.7 billion a year. Effective October 17, 2019, edible, thematic publications and extracts are allowed to legally sell. Edible packs are not allowed to exceed 10 mg THC, while extracts and topical materials cannot exceed 1000 mg THC.

 

 

The use of cannabis for medicinal purposes (medications and cannabis oil) is permitted in the following European countries - Denmark, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Poland, Finland, North Macedonia. Besides,medical marijuana allowed in Turkey, Israel, Russia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Peru, Thailand (legalized in 2018 under the New Year), Vanuatu and Panama.

In Israel, it has been possible to use marijuana with the permission of a doctor since 1994, and in 2017 the government mitigated the punishment for using in a public place - now it faces a fine, not criminal liability. In the Netherlands, a special drug policy was adopted even earlier, which is based on two principles. First, the so-called decriminalization of drugs was carried out in the country, that is, the use of drugs became a public health problem, and not a crime. Secondly, drug policy is strictly regulated by the "opium law", which, among other things, clearly distinguishes between hard and light drugs. At the same time, there is no legalization of drugs, and all drugs remain illegal. However, due to the division of drugs into two types, there is also a difference between punishable or no-fault use of prohibited substances. The use, circulation, manufacture, sale and import of drugs from the list of heavy drugs into the country is prohibited by law and is strictly suppressed, while the possession and use of light drugs, such as marijuana, despite being illegal, in some cases is not punished at all and is considered a crime, but a misdemeanor ... However, the turnover of light drugs is also under state control, including the operation of so-called koffie-shops. The main goal of such a policy is to clearly separate the two markets for hard and soft drugs and thereby protect people who use soft drugs from the underground criminal world. Moreover, it contributes to maintaining calmness in society, leads to a reduction in crime and helps prevent people from switching to harder drugs. A coffee shop can simultaneously contain up to 500 grams of the drug. They sell the potion only if they reach 18 years of age and no more than 5 g.

In thailand residents of the country cankeep the required amount of medical marijuana if they have a prescription or other document that gives them such a right. The licenses for the production and sale of marijuana in Thailand are strictly controlled. The amendments to the law also state that the new rules apply not only to marijuana, but also to kratom, a plant common in Southeast Asia that is often used as a stimulant. In Germany, marijuana is illegal, but personal use in small quantities is not punished. Moreover, each region has its own volume of marijuana for personal possession. Cannabis is also partially legalized in the UK, Belgium (storage allowed no more than 3 g, smoking is prohibited in public places, used for medical purposes), Spain, Portugal, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Croatia, Norway, Greece, Nepal, Australia, Georgia, India. For example, in the UK, medical cannabis is only available with a prescription. Doctors will only be able to prescribe such prescriptions in strictly defined cases when other drugs are ineffective.

In the United States, each state has its own rules on cannabis. As of November 2020, more than 25 US states (Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Vermont, Washington, Hawaii, Delaware, Illinois, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan. Montana, Maine, Nevada, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New -Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, North Dakota, Florida, South Dakota) allowed the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes. As of early November 2020, the following states and territories of the United States have fully legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis: Alaska, Arizona, Washington, California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Montana, Maine, Nevada, New Jersey, Oregon, District of Columbia, and South Dakota. At the same time, according to federal law, marijuana is classified as a prohibited substance. Therefore, the use of marijuana is prohibited in those US states and territories where no legalization laws have been adopted yet. In January 2014, following a referendum, Colorado fully legalized cannabis for both medical and recreational purposes. Projected sales for 2014 are approximately US $ 1 billion. Under the new law, cannabis will be sold at the same rates as alcohol and subject to the same tax. In November 2016 residents four more North American states - California, Massachusetts, Nevada and Maine- voted to legalize marijuana for recreational purposes. Since January 1, 2018 in the largest state of the USA – California the law came into force on the legalization of recreational marijuana use. The law allows citizens over the age of 21 to carry up to 31 grams (1 ounce) of marijuana, as well as grow up to six cannabis plants at home. The use of marijuana in public places is prohibited.

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In Western Australia storage allowed and growing up to 2 plants; in the Australian Capital Territory, storage of up to 25 g is allowed in South Australia, New South Wales and Tasmania, storage of hashish is considered a fairly minor offense.In Argentina - is not prosecuted for storage in small amounts. In Mexico storage of no more than 5 g is allowed (applies to any cannabiotive). In Russia there is a law “On narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances”. Also, narcotic drugs include Articles 228-233 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation... In Russia, marijuana belongs to List I prohibited substances (substances withdrawn from civil circulation without exceptions). The use of drugs as directed by a doctor is not a criminal offense. However, a person engaged in the production, sale, transfer of narcotic substances, and also inclines to the use of others,subject to criminal liability... Gratuitous transfer (donation) is also marketing. According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, the size is illegal, starting with the so-called. “Large size” (before January 1, 2013 - large size). A significant size is approved by the Government of the Russian Federation and from January 1, 2013 is 6 grams (after drying to constant weight at temperatures from +110 to +115 degrees (Fahrenheit) for marijuana (cannabis) and 2 g for hashish.

There is speculation that in states that have legalized cannabis, drug use among adolescents has either decreased or remained the same (although there is no specifics on this issue). Howeveraccording to another studyAmong respondents aged 12 to 17, the prevalence of marijuana use in the past month and frequent use in the last month, after the adoption of state legislation on the protection of human rights, did not change in the general sample and among consumers. However, following the adoption of RML (legislation on decriminalization), the prevalence of CUD increased slightly over the past year among all respondents aged 12 to 17 (2.18% to 2.72%; OR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1 , 55). This increase was 25% higher than for participants in the same age group in states where human rights law does not apply. Among users last year, the CUD increased from 22.80% to 27.20% (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.59). There was no difference in the 18 to 25-year-old group after the government enacted RML law in marijuana use in the last month, high use last month, or last year's CUD in the overall sample. Among respondents aged 26 and over, the use of marijuana in the last month after the adoption of the legislation increased from 5.65% to 7.10% (or, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.16-1.40). In addition, frequent use in the last month increased from 2.13% to 2.62% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.41), and last year's CUD increased from 0.90% to 1.23% (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). Among users, frequent use last month and CUD last year did not grow. Among adolescents who use marijuana, the prevalence of CUD increased slightly after taking RML. frequent use last month or last year's CUD in the total sample. Among respondents aged 26 and over, the use of marijuana in the last month after the adoption of the legislation increased from 5.65% to 7.10% (or, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.16-1.40). In addition, frequent use in the last month increased from 2.13% to 2.62% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.41), and last year's CUD increased from 0.90% to 1.23% (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). Among users, frequent use last month and CUD last year did not grow. Among adolescents who use marijuana, the prevalence of CUD increased slightly after taking RML. frequent use last month or last year's CUD in the total sample. Among respondents aged 26 and over, the use of marijuana in the last month after the adoption of the legislation increased from 5.65% to 7.10% (or, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.16-1.40). In addition, frequent use in the last month increased from 2.13% to 2.62% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.41), and last year's CUD increased from 0.90% to 1.23% (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). Among users, frequent use last month and CUD last year did not grow. Among adolescents who use marijuana, the prevalence of CUD increased slightly after taking RML. 40). In addition, frequent use in the last month increased from 2.13% to 2.62% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.41), and last year's CUD increased from 0.90% to 1.23% (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). Among users, frequent use last month and CUD last year did not grow. Among adolescents who use marijuana, the prevalence of CUD increased slightly after taking RML. 40). In addition, frequent use in the last month increased from 2.13% to 2.62% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.41), and last year's CUD increased from 0.90% to 1.23% (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). Among users, frequent use last month and CUD last year did not grow. Among adolescents who use marijuana, the prevalence of CUD increased slightly after taking RML.

Economists Edward M. Shepard and Paul R. Blackley of Le Moines College discoverthat medical marijuana is associated with significant reductions in violent crime. Looking at crime data from 11 states in the west, seven of which had medical marijuana laws prior to 2009, they see "no evidence of a significant, negative impact of MML on crime." Instead, they suspect a drop in the involvement of criminal organizations after marijuana is legalized for medical use, and conclude, "MMLs are likely to bring net benefits to society."Looking at the crime data before and after the de-penalization of marijuana in the United Kingdom in 2004, N. Braackmann and S. Jones of Newcastle University suggest that most types of crime, risk-taking and violence are falling. But they are seeing a 5 to 7 percent increase in property crime among the 15 to 17 age groups.

Although these studies should be considered carefully, because they can be carried out due to a wide information campaign on the legalization of cannabioids.

Distribution, sale or possession of marijuana in Ukraine is illegal. Cannabis, cannabis resin, cannabis extracts and tinctures are included inlist of "Particularly dangerous drugs, the circulation of which is prohibited"... The cultivation of plants of the hemp genus for industrial purposes, except for the production and (or) manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, is allowed provided that seeds collected from plant varieties are used, in the dried straw of which the tetrahydrocannabinol content did not exceed 0.08 percent. The criminal code criminalizes the cultivation and distribution of cannabis and cannabiodives. "Illegal planting or illegal cultivation of sleeping poppy up to one hundred plants or hemp up to ten plants- entail the imposition of a fine from eighteen to one hundred non-taxable minimum incomes of citizens with confiscation of illegally grown drug-containing plants. Illegal sowing or illegal cultivation of sleeping poppy in the amount of one hundred to five hundred plants, or hemp in the amount of ten to fifty plants - shall be punishable by a fine from one hundred to five hundred tax-free minimum incomes of citizens, or arrest for a term of up to six months, or restraint of liberty for a term of up to three years. ". Storage of up to 5 grams provides for administrative liability, more than 5 grams for criminal liability.

The legalization of medical cannabis was supported by the acting Minister of Health W. Suprun. They allegedly tried to introduce the corresponding changes into the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 188 of 2008 and the corresponding order of the Ministry of Health. But the issue was never considered by the Government.According to one of the versions, some of the officials cooperating with the cannabis lobby in Ukraine need a Law and the creation of a separate economic and economic sector from sowing to production. And the need for such drugs can be 1-5% of seriously ill patients and other patients with allergies to other painkillers. Iftake data MZ, it is about 50-70 thousand people. That is, what was needed was not a medicine that could be legalized by a government decision and purchased abroad, but the creation of a new industry.The corresponding bill was also registered in the parliament, but the deputies did not consider it.

Suprun's successor as head of the Ministry of Health, S. Skaletskaya, promised to step by step expand access to medicines with medical cannabis. But she did not have time to fulfill the promise due to the low tenure. Minister of Internal Affairs A. Avakovspoke a year agothat before discussing the use of medical marijuana it is necessary to develop a common approach. This should be done by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Health and religious organizations. The head of the "Servants of the People" faction, D. Arahamia, promised to support the legalization of medical cannabis.“There is medical cannabis in the form of drops, oils, used to treat cancer patients and to treat post-traumatic stress disorder. My position is that we should not talk about local production, but we can give the Ministry of Health the right to import ready-made drugs, see how the state will regulate this issue. If there are no risks in this, then the next question will be whether this production will be organized in Ukraine. I will support this issue. If they talk about the so-called recreational, as it is done in America, I will be categorically against it, because it seems to me that society is not ready for this.". Candidate for mayor of Kiev and People's Deputy I. Vereshchukpromised to vote for the legalization of medical cannabis, if such an initiative is submitted to parliament. A. Kachura in January 2020 indicated thatpromises to pass the law legalizing medical cannabis after a referendum. 10th of Novemberbecame knownon the preparation in the Verkhovna Rada of a bill on the legalization of medical cannabis. The document should regulate its use in the production of medicines. Primate of the OCU, Metropolitan of Kiev andthroughout Ukraine Epiphanius saidthat the legalization of marijuana in Ukraine is possible only if it is used for medical purposes, in favor of human health.

P. Kazaryan, head of the Center for Resocialization of Drug Addicts "Source", noted that the initiative to legalize cannabis is a purely business project. The authors of the initiative put up a living barrier of numerous patients who really need help.“At the same time, hiding true intentions - to make crazy money for pain and health of the Ukrainian. Why were patients with rare diseases remembered in the context of marijuana treatment? Cannabis is exclusively promoted as a panacea for them. But this is manipulation. Uncovered and dirty. "

So, only two countries have fully legalized marijuana: Uruguay and Canada. That is, in these countries it is allowed to grow, store and consume. 30 countries allowed partial use of marijuana USA, Mexico, Paraguay, Brazil, Chile, Belize, Ecuador, Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela, Jamaica, Bolivia, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, France, Belgium, UK, Germany, Czech Republic, Malta, Luxembourg , Cambodia, Australia, Croatia, Nepal, Norway, Slovenia, Greece, Cyprus, India. Another 14 countries have allowed cannabis to be used solely for medical purposes:

  • Panama;

  • Peru;

  • Israel;

  • Denmark

  • Austria;

  • Turkey;

  • Russia;

  • Finland;

  • Italy;

  • Zambia;

  • Macedonia;

  • Poland;

  • Switzerland;

  • Zimbabwe.

In Ukraine, there is a complete ban on the cultivation, use, distribution and use of hemp for any purpose, except for food. The list of "Very dangerous drugs" includes: cannabis, cannabis resin, cannabis extracts and tinctures. Storage of up to 5 grams provides for administrative liability for storage of more than 5 grams - criminal prosecution. It is also worth noting that opium poppy is grown in Ukraine and drugs are made from it. But no specialized legislation was adopted for this. However, for drugs, cannabioids require a separate law. The reason is that some of the officials who cooperate with the cannabis lobby want the law, not changes to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the order of the Ministry of Health, since this will be a separate branch of business. Growing, processing, production and sale bring quite large funds and the need for 1-5% of patients, we can simply purchase these drugs for patients abroad, despite the fact that similar drugs tramadol and methadone, after their licensing in Ukraine, continue to be sold on the “shadow” market. Summing up, it is worth noting that the most lobbyists among the political parties advocating the legalization of cannabis are "servants of the people",other political forces or cautiously neutral ("European Solidarity", "Batkivshchyna" or opposed - "HLS".

In addition, raising the issue of legalizing not only medical cannabis, but marijuana in general, can put certain political forces at a disadvantage in front of their voters. since according to sociological data a significant part of the population of Ukraine are against. Another important point is ratings. As the local elections showed, a significant part of the parties lost the share of active voters and the rise of constantly debatable issues can ambiguously affect the further preferences of voters to certain political forces, and in the possible parliamentary elections and a radical change in the political elite in Ukraine.

Personally, for V. Zelensky and his team, the topic of "legalization" is also more difficult. After all, rumors about their use of marijuana have been circulating in society for a long time. It seems that the power team did not fully calculate this risk, and fell into the trap of the opponents.

In general, in our opinion, a rational approach to this situation could be the inclusion of cannabioids in the list of narcotic painkillers of the Ministry of Health, which are purchased from foreign manufacturers and dispensed exclusively on prescriptions for patients with confirmed allergic reactions to other painkillers. The creation of a market, production, or even more so, sale for recreational purposes in a weak and corrupt state, cannot provide effective control mechanisms over this market, can hardly be considered expedient and can entail serious consequences for society.

 

D. Lagosha, R. Bortnik