The Role of International Organized Crime Syndicates in the World Economy

Since the beginning of the information era, the process of globalization has a significant impact on the development of the world economy, the development of foreign trade through the virtual space, the expansion of the boundaries of capital from the national to the global transnational dimension in which the territorial boundaries between states, nations, peoples began to disappear and intertwine into one super-global world. One of the phenomena that was not only transformed, but also brought to a new, more flexible level is transnational organized crime and a new shadow market, and over the past decades we can fully believe that this phenomenon has begun to play a large role in the development of the world economy and even influence legal and economic policy of a number of states. The transformation of national crime into international transnational forms in the context of globalization of political, economic, information and communication processes is an integral part of globalization and this reality poses new complex problems. The main factors that influenced the processes of "global criminalization" of geoeconomics are as follows:

  • Development of interstate and international relations, expansion of economic and social ties;

  • Increasing the "transparency" of borders, the development of international trade, the emergence of new sales markets, an increase in international traffic, creates a set of opportunities for the active activity of transnational organized crime;

  • The development of international banking and other financial structures, information technologies, contributes to the rapid transfer of money using electronic networks;

  • Migration of the population, education in different countries of ethnic diasporas within which typical "branches" of international organizational-criminal groups are created;

  • Formation of a global flexible logistics infrastructure.

Using the above factors, as well as possessing significant financial, organizational, political resources, transnational organized crime has the ability not only to actively develop, but also to influence the economic security of states, primarily those where the market economy has not yet acquired the features of a democratic legal system capable of actively counteract criminal activity. The fact that globalization is a factor determining the development of crimewas announced at the UN level in the report "The Globalization of Crime: Assessing the Threat of International Organized Crime". The report says that criminal groups make billions of dollars annually from the sale of drugs, weapons, people, raw materials, counterfeit products, as well as maritime piracy and cybercrime, but this threat is not limited to the economy.The proceeds of crime and the threat of use of force enable criminals to influence elections, politicians and the military, and the largest economies are large markets for illegal goods. The constant growth of criminal gangs, they are distinguished by better organization, have international connections and which have huge financial resources, creates a new threat to the stability and security of not only international economic, but also political ties. According to the expression, then in geoeconomic activities,transnational crime manifests itself in

  • significant expansion of smuggling activities;

  • the formation of a criminal market in which financial turnover plays a special role, including those associated with laundering of proceeds from crime (legalization)

  • improvement of the mechanism and intensification of information exchange between criminal structures;

  • “Merging” of the shadow and legal sectors of the world economy;

  • active and free migration throughout the planet of shadow capital, human, industrial and

  • information resources used in criminal activities;

  • in the specialization of criminal elements and their international cooperation;

First, you need to define what we mean by the term "transnational crime" and "organized crime syndicate and group." Modern scientific thought scatters in fundamental issues related to transnational organized crime, in particular, there is no unity on the classification of transnational organized criminal organizations as an independent form of crime.Also in science there is a combination of the concepts of transnational organized crime and international crime, is also a problematic point in its delimitation from other related types of criminal activity. In 1988, at the International Symposium on Organized Crime in Sant Cludi, transnational organized crime was defined as “any ongoing involvement of a group of people or an organization in a criminal activity, the main purpose of which is to make a profit everywhere, regardless of the presence of borders". A more solid definition of transnational crimepresented in the documents of the World Conference in Naplesin 1994, where transnational organized criminal activity is understood as the implementation by criminal organizations of illegal operations related to the movement of flows of information, money, physical objects, people, other tangible and intangible assets across state borders in order to use favorable market conditions in one or several foreign states to obtain significant economic benefits, as well as to effectively evade social control through corruption, violence and exploiting the significant differences in the criminal justice systems of different countries. G. Zharovskaya gives such a definition of transnational crime - a separate selfish type of criminal activity in the economy, finance, trade and other spheres of public life,

An attempt to formulate the essential definition of the concept of transnational crime was made by S. V. Maksimov. In his opinion,transnational crime is “the aggregate of crimes committed during a certain period (the persons who committed them) that damage the relations of two or more states or the interests of legal entities or individuals of two or more states, responsibility for which is provided for in acts of international criminal law or norms of national criminal legislation adopted in accordance with such international legal acts". The main group of subjects of transnational organized crime are criminal organizations that use their subsidiaries in different countries. Their most typical features are: a high degree of organization; family or ethnic background, solves the problem of replenishment, dedication and discipline within the organization; the presence of transnational ties with criminal organizations in other countries; striving to achieve and protect narrow corporate interests; quick adaptation to the increasing influence of law enforcement agencies on them. A. Kozachenko points out that transnational crime can be viewed from two positions, which corresponds to the criminological and criminal-legal aspects of this problem: as a negative social phenomenon, the criterion for the selection of which are its essential distinctive features; and how many committed for a certain

the time period of a certain type of crime, namely transnational crimes. Article 3 of the 2000 Convention. names four signs of a transnational crime and determines that a crime is transnational in nature if it: 1) has been committed in more than one state; 2) was committed in one state, but a significant part of its preparation, planning, direction or control takes place in another state; 3) committed in one state, but with the participation of an organized criminal group that carries out criminal activity in more than one state; 4) committed in one state, but its significant consequences take place in another state.

L. Shelley identifies three characteristic features of transnational organized crime: geography of criminal activity - as a rule, based in one state, and commits crimes in several countries; the sphere of interests of transnational organized crime extends to all spheres of the economy, trade, finance; this activity brings super-profits, some of which are later used in corruption schemes, as well as for the further conduct of criminal activity. G.Zharovskaya indicates the following signs transnational criminal groups:

- Internationality: the structure of transnational organized crime includes representatives of various nationalities (although there are often those syndicates existing exclusively on the ethnic social component).

- Structuredness: transnational criminal organizations have a complex structure of interrelationships associated with other social institutions; there is a clear hierarchy within the organizations.

- Flexibility.

- Mostly forceful methods of solving problems.

- Criminal innovation: transnational criminal organizations use advanced information technology and technology innovations to achieve mobility, effective communication for financial transactions and control.

- Speed ​​and mobility.

- control: transnational criminal organizations try to exercise total control over a certain area of ​​criminal activity.

- Adaptation: transnational criminal organizations quickly adapt to economic, political, legal, customs conditions.

As the same G. Zharovskaya points out, the inner contour of interrelations encompasses the hierarchy, the distribution of roles, the presence of "managerial", "intellectual" "power", "business" blocks. The existence of an internal contour of interconnections predetermines the fact that the subjects of transnational crime are highly organized, cohesive criminal organizations operating on a long-term basis, which are able to organize themselves into rigid corporate structures, as well as organically combine clearly structured controls in the center of a more diffuse and flexible a system of relationships at lower levels. The external contour of criminal communication is the relationship with the external environment, a manifestation of which is the use of violence and corruption, which are differentially used by criminal syndicates to quickly solve problems related to the implementation of a criminal plan. Transnational criminal organizations are also able to have long-term contacts with governments outside the state where these or those organizations operate. Such contacts can lead to the merger of government structures with them, since these organizations have sufficient financial and power capabilities to corrupt governments and infiltrate commercial structures. This external contour leads to a large-scale penetration of representatives of transnational criminal organizations into the authorities and government of the state, leads to the fact that they become involved in criminal activity, and themselves become active participants in it. Such contacts can lead to the merger of government structures with them, since these organizations have sufficient financial and power capabilities to corrupt governments and infiltrate commercial structures. This external contour leads to a large-scale penetration of representatives of transnational criminal organizations into the authorities and government of the state, leads to the fact that they are involved in criminal activity, and they themselves become active participants in it. Such contacts can lead to the merger of government structures with them, since these organizations have sufficient financial and power capabilities to corrupt governments and infiltrate commercial structures.

Separately, it should be noted that at the global geo-economic level of organized crime transnational syndicates use such models of criminal organization. The first is a corporate model, similar to the ways of organizing public administration structures. Administrative and executive and law enforcement agencies, the armed forces are examples of such a model. In an organized crime environment, the corporate model is inherent in organizations with a rigid, centralized system of an authoritarian type.A. Repetskaya states, that in a criminal organization, structured according to the corporate model, the genetic relationship of the model of the structure of society turns out to be, reflects the interconnection of the main elements: the state - corporation, enterprise - family, and the family is first assigned the status of a prototype. To coordinate the activities of individual criminal corporations, the resolution of disputes arising between them, the recognition of newly elected leaders, control over joint ventures and regulation of other problems arising in the process of interaction between criminal "families" can create special bodies or commissions. These bodies are the union of the legislature, the supreme and arbitration courts, and the board of directors. Members of a family or other corporate entity are treated as the ultimate authority in organizational and jurisdictional disputes.In addition to the main management levels, the structural elements of the corporate model can be different staff positions corresponding to the positions of the head of the personnel department, Public Relations Manager, Head of the Security Service, but they are not constantly occupied by the same person. The crime syndicate has established rules and regulations that govern its members. The list of such rules is kept secret for the purpose of conspiracy and protection from outside intrusion. This model is used by syndicates, they use violence to control the production of illegal goods, services and their markets - Mexican and Afghan drug cartels, Italian mafia structures, Japanese transnational crime and organized crime groups in the post-Soviet space.

The partnership model, having some specific features of the corporate model, on the contrary, is devoid of a rigid hierarchical structure, More flexible and dynamic. The way criminal activity is organized in this case manifests itself through a series of small-scale business partnerships in the form of investments and joint business ventures with a wide range of partners, constantly changing. The structure is fairly decentralized and has several major autonomous branches.In general, decentralization in the criminal community, notes G. Albino, can be beneficial both for business and from a security standpoint. Using the network model, criminal organizations create flexible and dynamic structures. Criminal networks are characterized by inconsistent membership and a high level of adaptation to political, economic and social changes taking place in public life, without a centralized control system.

main idea patrimonial model is that each person is included in the social network and is in the chain of persons with whom it has contacts.Contact occurs through a chain consisting of many such links, an individual person can send "messages" to significantly more people than she personally knows, since there are always "friends of friends". Therefore, “each person is the point at which the networks intersect. This model is inherent in cybercriminal organizations and individual communities involved in human trafficking.

In a criminal organization there is its core, permanent members, there are "peripheral" members, narrowly dealing with specific private issues. It is important to keep in mind that those involved on a one-time or systematic basis, participants in certain types of activities of a criminal organization are not included in such an organization. Thus, it is necessary to distinguish: firstly, the participants in a criminal organization, recognize themselves as such and subordinate their vital activity to the requirements of the leaders and the norms of the organization; secondly, the participants in the activities of a criminal organization, including those "hired" for a stipulated remuneration, bribes employees on a one-time or other basis, providing assistance for family or other reasons. There is a category of "stuck", which "feed from the master's table", provide small services, trying to attract the attention of criminal leaders with money and influence. A. Repetskaya, when classifying the subjects of transnational organized crime, constructs their two-level system, consisting of: a) transnational criminal organizations and criminal communities, b) transnational criminal-state organizations. Legalization of criminal proceeds, part of criminal activity, is not yet a symbiosis with state power. Such symbiosis becomes real with a different nature of organized criminal activity. He is more successful in the actual criminal communities as a formation that stands above specific criminal organizations and carries out general organizational criminal functions. Transnational organized crime syndicates,

Simultaneously with this problem, another phenomenon appeared in scientific circles that needs to be distinguished - the shadow economy. In 1983, the first international conference on the shadow economy was held in Belefeldei, at which about 40 reports were presented, touching upon the problems of the shadow economy in the context of various economic systems. In 1991, a conference of European statisticians dedicated to the hidden and informal economy was held in Geneva. Based on its materials, a special manual on statistics of the shadow economy in countries with a market economy system has been published. In May 1996, at a joint meeting of the UNECE (Eurostat) OECD on national accounts, among other issues, the problem of assessing the scale of the shadow economy was considered. Shadow economic activity is distinguished depending on the nature of the result: productive, making a real contribution to the production of the gross national product; redistributive, not associated with the real creation of economic benefits, but income and property are redistributed. Most scientific interpretations of the shadow economy include economic activity at all stages of the reproduction cycle. Depending on the stages of the reproductive cycle, there are:

  • shadow production;

  • shadow distribution (hidden from accounting distribution of income, economic crimes)

  • shadow exchange (sale of illegally manufactured products, offenses in the consumer market, sale of illegally obtained values);

  • shadow consumption (consumption of products of own production, satisfaction of destructive, asocial needs).

Criminal economic activity also has its own economic cycles, namely: the generation of criminal income is a phase of the criminal economic cycle, the content of which is the receipt of income as a result of criminal (socially dangerous) economic activity, the commission of crimes in the economic sphere. Legalization of criminal funds is a phase of the criminal economic cycle, the content of which is financial transactions aimed at rendering the criminally obtained means of visibility obtained by legal means. Criminal investment - the use of legalized criminally obtained funds to restore, expand a criminal enterprise. Infiltration into legal business is the phase of the criminal economic cycle, the content of which is direct and portfolio investments in the organization of legal business.

  • The deformation of the tax sphere is manifested in the impact on the distribution of the tax burden and, as a consequence, the reduction of budget expenditures and the deformation of its structure:

  • The deformation of the budgetary sphere is manifested in the reduction of state budget expenditures and the deformation of its structure. The reduction in budget revenues is the reason for the underfunding of state institutions for regulating the economy (controlling, law enforcement agencies), their weakening and degradation at a time when the strongest need to ensure the rights and legitimate interests of participants in economic relations:

  • The impact on the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy is manifested, first of all, in the growth of errors in macroeconomic regulation:

  • The impact on the monetary sphere is manifested in the deformation of the structure of payment turnover, stimulation of inflation, deformation of credit relations and an increase in investment risks, causing harm to credit institutions, investors, depositors, shareholders, society as a whole.

  • Impact on the investment component and costs:

  • Raises contradictions in the international economic activity of states with international organizations and other subjects of international relations.

The basic institution of the “shadow economy” is the “shadow market”. "Shadow" or illegal market - a set of relations carried out in violation of current legal norms and bringing together buyers and sellers of goods and services. By the nature of the goods sold, there are: markets for legal goods and services designed to meet normal needs; markets for prohibited goods and services (markets for goods and services aimed at satisfying destructive needs - markets for drugs, "human trains" - prostitution, human trafficking, animal trafficking is prohibited, markets for stolen property, radioactive materials). A special place in this category belongs to the market of criminal services: markets for criminal services associated with the use of violence, the threat of its use, and others, aiming to actively influence the behavior of market participants (contract killings). In terms of the level of competition development among illegal markets, there are various types from highly monopolized (drug business) to highly competitive (market of services for money laundering).

The UN lists 19 types (forms) of transnational criminal activity, including: international terrorism, trafficking in persons, especially women and children, trafficking in human organs, illicit trafficking in chemical and nuclear materials, illicit arms trade, drug trafficking, car theft and smuggling , illegal migration (illegal transfer of migrants), corruption, theft and illegal export of cultural property, illegal trade in flora and fauna, computer crimes, theft of intellectual property, piracy, legalization of proceeds from crime, counterfeiting of securities, etc. Moreover, each of the forms of transnational crime consists of certain types of crimes specified in the national criminal legislation. So,... Transnational organized crime groups make up to $ 2.2 trillion a year, according to a 2017 report published by Washington-based Global Financial Integrity (GFI). The most lucrative crime is the production of counterfeit products - with annual turnover ranging from $ 923 billion to $ 1.13 trillion. Between two thirds and three quarters of counterfeit goods are produced in China. In developing countries, such products can pose a serious threat to human health. The report notes that, for example, in such countries, up to 30 percent of medicines may be counterfeit. Revenues from drug and human trafficking are estimated at $ 426-652 billion and $ 150.2 billion, respectively. The article will consider the most massive and lucrative forms of transnational crimes that most affect the global economy.

Drug and drug trafficking

One of the main activities of organized criminal groups and one of the main sources of income for most transnational criminal organizations is drug trafficking. This type of transnational criminal activity is second only to the arms trade in terms of its scale and level of threat and generates billions of dollars annually. The rapid growth of illegal production and consumption of narcotic drugs in most countries of the world is one of the most dangerous trends in recent decades. Countries with economies in transition find themselves in a particularly difficult situation. With the spread of drug trafficking and related drug trafficking, drug addiction has become one of the most dangerous social problems. The UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 on illicit traffic understands intentional criminally punishable acts expressed: in the production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, for the purpose of sale, distribution, sale, delivery under any conditions, mediation, transportation , transit, transportation, import or export, storage and acquisition for the sale of any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance; in the cultivation of opium poppy, coca bush or cannabis plant for the production of narcotic drugs; in the manufacture, transportation, distribution or possession of equipment, materials and substances intended for the illicit cultivation, production or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances; as well as the organization, management and financing of the specified offenses, participation, attempt, involvement, complicity, incitement, assistance, public incitement to the use of drugs; also possession, acquisition or cultivation of any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance for personal use.

Funds received from drugs often go to organizations involved in other types of illicit trafficking. This has become a powerful incentive for the development of multidisciplinary transnational criminal organizations and has led to massive financial transactions for money laundering. More than 90% of the world's opium production comes from Afghanistan and Burma, with Afghanistan accounting for more than 80% of this figure. Afghan opium alone could supply the entire world demand for heroin. The destruction of poppy crops causes anger and opposition of the local population. Attempts to persuade peasants to switch to other agricultural crops have practically failed, since the profitability of drug crops is incomparably higher. The Taliban are encouraging the cultivation of the opium poppy in the territories they control, thus gaining a greater influence.According to UN data, since the introduction of US and NATO military contingents into Afghanistan in 2001 and the beginning of the military operation Enduring Freedom, the opium poppy harvest has grown almost 40 times. The well-known Italian fighter against the mafia and drugs, MEP Pino Arlacchi, confirmed the words of the head of the Federal Drug Control Service. According to him, in 2001, under the Taliban, the production of drugs in Afghanistan due to international pressure dropped to almost zero. With the introduction of troops, this picture has changed dramatically. In 2004, the region of Afghanistan where the opium poppy is grown set a new record: its area was 206,700 hectares. A similar situation occurred in Colombia, where coca cultivation increased by a quarter (27%) in 2007, but remained about 40% below the record level recorded in 2000. According to rough estimates, today around the world more than 200 million people use drugs of various types, including about 140 million - marijuana, 13 million - cocaine, 8 million - heroin, 30 million. People abuse amphetamine-type stimulants ... The turnover of the world drug industry is estimated by UN experts at about 400-500 billion dollars per year, due to the outstripping growth in demand over supply and the rise in prices from production, processing and transportation to marketing and legalization of illegal income. The UN report on the situation with drugs in the world in 1997 noted that the world turnover of the drug business in some years exceeds the turnover of the world car market or the world market for ferrous metals. Colombian cartels alone, represented by more than 500 companies, received $ 20 billion annually from the US drug trade in the late 1990s. For comparison, the national budgets of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru totaled at that time about 9 billion dollars per year. Annually about 90 billion dollars are "laundered" and used as legal investments. US obtained from drug trafficking, out of 600 billion. illegal income, according to the International Monetary Fund. However, experts note that the police manage to identify only 10-15% of the total volume of drugs that are illegally distributed in the world. The place and role of each country in the transnational drug business depends on its geostrategic position, natural and climatic conditions, civilizational characteristics, transparency of borders, the suitability of its infrastructure for drug production, the attitude of the ruling elites to the drug threat, and many other circumstances. A large number of countries are used for the transit of drugs from major producers to consumers in the West. In other states, drug dollars are laundered or raw drug materials are processed to obtain "pure" drugs with a high alkaloids content. Several countries specialize in the illicit supply of precursors. the attitude of the ruling elites to the drug threat and many other circumstances. A large number of countries are used for the transit of drugs from major producers to consumers in the West. In other states, drug dollars are laundered or raw drug materials are processed to obtain "pure" drugs with a high alkaloids content. Several countries specialize in the illicit supply of precursors. the attitude of the ruling elites to the drug threat and many other circumstances. A large number of countries are used for the transit of drugs from major producers to consumers in the West. In other states, drug dollars are laundered or drug raw materials are processed to obtain "pure" drugs with a high content of alkaloids. Several countries specialize in the illicit supply of precursors. the attitude of the ruling elites to the drug threat and many other circumstances. A large number of countries are used for the transit of drugs from major producers to consumers in the West. In other states, drug dollars are laundered or raw drug materials are processed to obtain "pure" drugs with a high alkaloids content. Several countries specialize in the illicit supply of precursors. the attitude of the ruling elites to the drug threat and many other circumstances. A large number of countries are used for the transit of drugs from major producers to consumers in the West. In other states, drug dollars are laundered or raw drug materials are processed to obtain "pure" drugs with a high alkaloids content. Several countries specialize in the illicit supply of precursors.

Spain, for example, is called the drug circulation of Europe. its favorable geographical position between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea, a developed tourism industry, the acute problem of Basque separatism - all this is used for international transit through the Spanish territory of hashish, cocaine and heroin, which then enter France, Germany and other Schengen countries. Turkey is known as a "heroin laboratory" because the opium that comes from Afghanistan via Iran is processed in its clandestine laboratories into heroin in quantities sufficient to meet most of the demand in the Schengen countries. From Turkey, heroin is delivered by the so-called northern Balkan transit route through Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine, Poland to the Czech Republic, which serves as a transshipment base. Major drug flows, passing along the Balkan route are controlled by Turkish mafia groups, very influential in Europe, as well as Kurdish rebels. An important function in the transnationalization of the drug business is performed by transport hubs, where drug flows from the main producing countries intersect. The most famous is Nigeria, which is a large producer of marijuana, consumed mainly domestically. Nigerian mafia structures in their influence in the global drug business are compared to Latin American cartels or Turkish and Asian criminal groups. The producers of cocaine are the countries of the "Andean group": Colombia (it accounts for 2/3 of the world production of coca leaves, according to UN estimates), Bolivia and Peru. 98% of the world's coca production is concentrated here. Most of the Peruvian and Bolivian raw materials are processed in Colombia, and cocaine is supplied to foreign markets from this country. Cocaine production is growing in Brazil. A relatively small amount of cocaine is produced in Ecuador, Venezuela, Argentina. Most of this drug leaves the Andean countries through the Caribbean or South American countries - Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela and Paraguay. Cocaine is usually transported by traditional means: using drug couriers carrying the cargo on commercial airlines. Larger consignments are hiding in containerized cargo, which is sent to Europe and the United States by sea. Spain, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium, France and Switzerland are the main consumers of cocaine in Europe. and cocaine comes to foreign markets from this very country. Cocaine production is growing in Brazil. A relatively small amount of cocaine is produced in Ecuador, Venezuela, Argentina. Most of this drug leaves the Andean countries through the Caribbean or South American countries - Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela and Paraguay. Cocaine is usually transported by traditional means, using drug couriers who carry the cargo on commercial airlines. Larger consignments are hiding in containerized cargo, which is sent to Europe and the United States by sea. Spain, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium, France and Switzerland are the main consumers of cocaine in Europe. and cocaine comes to foreign markets from this very country. Cocaine production is growing in Brazil. A relatively small amount of cocaine is produced in Ecuador, Venezuela, Argentina. Most of this drug leaves the Andean countries through the Caribbean or South American countries - Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela and Paraguay. Cocaine is usually transported by traditional means, using drug couriers who carry the cargo on commercial airlines. Larger consignments are hiding in containerized cargo, which is sent to Europe and the United States by sea. Spain, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium, France and Switzerland are the main consumers of cocaine in Europe. Argentina. Most of this drug leaves the Andean countries through the Caribbean or South American countries - Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela and Paraguay. Cocaine is usually transported by traditional means, using drug couriers who carry the cargo on commercial airlines. Larger consignments are hiding in containerized cargo, which is sent to Europe and the United States by sea. Spain, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium, France and Switzerland are the main consumers of cocaine in Europe. Argentina. Most of this drug leaves the Andean countries through the Caribbean or South American countries - Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela and Paraguay. Cocaine is usually transported by traditional means, using drug couriers who carry the cargo on commercial airlines. Larger consignments are hiding in containerized cargo, which is sent to Europe and the United States by sea. Spain, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium, France and Switzerland are the main consumers of cocaine in Europe. Larger consignments are hiding in containerized cargo, which is sent to Europe and the United States by sea. Spain, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium, France and Switzerland are the main consumers of cocaine in Europe. Larger consignments are hiding in containerized cargo, which is sent to Europe and the United States by sea. Spain, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium, France and Switzerland are the main consumers of cocaine in Europe.

Unlike coca and opium poppy, cannabis is grown in almost all countries of the world, due to its widespread prevalence and unpretentiousness. Over the past ten years, 120 countries have reported illicit cannabis cultivation on their territory. In terms of the number and volume of seizures, Interpol singles out 67 countries - the main cannabis producers. Of these, 22 are countries on the African continent, 15 are Asian, 13 are the state of Europe and 13 countries of America. The trade in synthetic stimulants is concentrated in three regions: East and Southeast Asia (over 30% of the world's total seizures), Western Europe (over 30%) and North America (15-18%). The increasing proliferation of synthetic drugs contributes to the strengthening of the role of China and Myanmar as producers and exporters of synthetic drugs and precursors. Chinese and Vietnamese drug mafias are expanding their expansion through their national communities in various regions of the world. In the Australia and Oceania region, Australia became the main consumption market (1.5%). The main market for psychostimulants in Europe is the UK (20% of the total world seizures). Trade is concentrated mainly in the Benelux countries (13%), especially in the Netherlands (11%). The Netherlands is also one of the main producers of synthetic drugs. The largest market for psychostimulants in North America is in the United States, where trade and production are concentrated in the southwestern states, although there has been a recent trend towards expanding production to the center of the country and to the eastern states. In the region of Australia and Oceania, Australia became the main consumption market (1.5%). The main market for psychostimulants in Europe is the UK (20% of the total world seizures). Trade is concentrated mainly in the Benelux countries (13%), especially in the Netherlands (11%). The Netherlands is also one of the main producers of synthetic drugs. The largest market for psychostimulants in North America is in the United States, where trade and production are concentrated in the southwestern states, although there has been a recent trend towards expanding production to the center of the country and to the eastern states. In the Australia and Oceania region, Australia became the main consumption market (1.5%). The main market for psychostimulants in Europe is the UK (20% of the total world seizures). Trade is concentrated mainly in the Benelux countries (13%), especially in the Netherlands (11%). The Netherlands is also one of the main producers of synthetic drugs. The largest market for psychostimulants in North America is in the United States, where trade and production are concentrated in the southwestern states, although there has been a recent trend towards expanding production to the center of the country and to the eastern states. especially in the Netherlands (11%). The Netherlands is also one of the main producers of synthetic drugs. The largest market for psychostimulants in North America is in the United States, where trade and production are concentrated in the southwestern states, although there has been a recent trend towards expanding production to the center of the country and to the eastern states. especially in the Netherlands (11%). The Netherlands is also one of the main producers of synthetic drugs. The largest market for psychostimulants in North America is in the United States, where trade and production are concentrated in the southwestern states, although there has been a recent trend towards expanding production to the center of the country and to the eastern states.

Since 2015 according to the International Drug Control Commission, the following trends have occurred.The increasing use of the East African coast as a transit zone for Afghan heroin has led to an increase in the abuse of opiates in the subregion. West Africa has been identified as one of the sources of amphetamine-type stimulants entering Asia. The Central America and Caribbean region continues to be a major supplier of cannabis and an important transit route for cocaine to North America and Europe. North America had the highest rates of drug-related deaths in the world, including an increase in overdose fatalities, and the continent was affected by the public safety and security implications of widespread cannabis abuse in the United States and Canada. health care i. In 2014, the area under coca bush cultivation in Colombia increased by 44 per cent, while in Bolivia and Peru there was another decline in acreage. Amphetamine-type stimulants, especially methamphetamine, remain a serious drug threat in East and South-East Asia. In addition, the sudden emergence of new psychoactive substances is of additional concern. In South Asia, the main drug-related problems continue to be the increase in the illicit manufacture, trafficking and abuse of methamphetamine, as well as the diversion and abuse of pharmaceutical preparations containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. The situation in the framework of security and conflict situations in some countries of West Asia and, as a consequence,

As of 2019, Africa continues to face multiple challenges related to both drug trafficking and drug abuse. Record seizures in a number of West African countries indicate that the smuggling of cocaine from Central and South America into Europe remains significant, although a lack of data makes it difficult to measure growth. Heroin trafficking between coastal African countries is on the rise Indian Ocean rather illicit cultivation cannabis remains a problem for all countries in the region. Tramadol, an opioid analgesic drug that is not under international control, is a serious problem in several parts of Africa, which is becoming one of the most common trafficked and most widely consumed drugs, in particular in the countries of North, West and Central Africa. The African Union Commission held the third regular session of the Specialized Technical Committee on Health, Population and Drug Control from 29 July to 2 August 2019. During the ministerial segment of the session, ministers from African Union member states reviewed and approved the African Union Action Plan on Drug Control and Crime Prevention 2019-2023. In July 2019, representatives of the Command of the Naval Forces, Coast Guard and Gendarmerie of Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia and Sierra Leone signed a memorandum of understanding on joint operations at sea in the maritime zone of the Economic Community of West African states. This memorandum is intended to enhance the effectiveness of measures taken by the states of the subregion to combat piracy and criminal activity in the Gulf of Guinea, and to ensure security in the exclusive economic zones of these states.

Most of the cocaine consumed in the United States and Canada is trafficked through Central America. The Caribbean coast of Central America is particularly vulnerable to drug trafficking due to its remoteness, underdeveloped infrastructure, lack of government and weak law enforcement institutions. The consumption of opioids for pain relief and psychotropic substances for the treatment of mental and neurological diseases is reportedly still low in most Central American countries, and a decline in already low availability of these drugs has been observed in a number of countries. In Central America, the largest quantities of cocaine seized were in Costa Rica, Panama and El Salvador. Cumulative proportion of cocaine seizures reported by Caribbean countriesThe largest cocaine seizures recorded in Central America and the Caribbean took place in El Salvador in 2018: more than 13,779 kg of cocaine. The seized cocaine was carried out in Colombia (90 per cent) and Ecuador (10 per cent) and shipped by sea to cocaine markets in North America. The second most seized substance in El Salvador in 2018 was marijuana, at almost 1,253 kg. According to the 2019 UNODC World Drug Report,from Central American countries, open-access cannabis cultivation was reported by Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama. Guatemala has hidden airstrips, which are mainly found in the departments of Petén, Isabal, Retalhuleu, Escuintla, Quiche and Alta Verapaz, most of which border Mexico or are located near the border.

Mexico is a growing drug producer and transit hub in Central America. In terms of the structure of the drug business and the production of drugs, Mexico differs markedly from the countries of the Andean triangle. it ranks fourth in Latin America in total production of herbal drug products and significantly surpasses any country in the Andean Triangle in the production of synthetic drugs. In addition, this country, along with Colombia, has a leading position in the region in the cultivation of opium poppy and the production of heroin. In terms of the transit of drugs to the United States (mainly cocaine), Mexico ranks first in Latin America - the length of the border between Mexico and the United States by land is 2,600 km. Much of the drugs are transported to Mexico and further to the United States by sea.According to American experts, up to 50% of all cocaine consumed in the country comes through Mexico to the United States. The influence of the drug business affects all spheres of life in Mexico, however, Mexican experts rightly believe that the degree of drug addiction is less.than in the Andean or Caribbean countries due to its greater diversification and scale.

Drug abuse and overdose in North America is exacerbated by the illicit drug trade over the Internet via anonymous networks. It has been established that one of the main problems hindering the work of structures dealing with the fight against anonymity, the prevention of money laundering using virtual currencies and criminal prosecution for drug trafficking is the circulation of cryptocurrency.In the United States, countering the online illicit drug trade is a cross-sectoral effort that involves the entire government. In particular, the Department of Justice established a joint darknet drug-trafficking investigation team that, in collaboration with several federal agencies and local law enforcement partners in Operation SaboTor, blocked 50 accounts.records on the darknet and made 61 arrests. In Canada, in March 2019, 30 cases of drug trafficking over the Internet were investigated. In Canada and the United States, the supply and demand for cocaine has increased. The expansion of the illicit cultivation of coca bush in Colombia has led the United States to face another challenge, according to the 2018 National Drug Treat Assessment by the US Drug Enforcement Administration. cocaine threat In June 2019, officers of the United States Department of Homeland Security's Border Guard and Investigation Department seized nearly 20 tons of cocaine on board a ship in Philadelphia, totaling approximately $ 1.3 billion. It is the largest cocaine seizure in the history of the US Customs and Border Protection. Heroin continues to be available throughout the United States, and the number of organized crime groups involved in the heroin trafficking in Canada has increased significantly over the past year.Mexico remains the main supplier of heroin to the United States, according to the US National Drug Control Policy Office. Between October 2018 and June 2019, the US Border Guard Service seized more than 21 tons of methamphetamine. But continue to appear new psychoactive substances, and national authorities are faced with a serious and constantly evolving phenomenon of experimenting with unregulated substances. However, Canada reports that illegal traffic and manufacture methamphetamine is at the center of many of the country's organized crime and trafficking cases several drugs at once. Between 2010 and 2012, an average of 138,000 hectares of illicit coca bush plantations were destroyed by hand or by aerial spraying in Colombia annually. During this period, about three quarters of all coca crops were destroyed by aerial spraying of the plantations with glyphosate. In the period 2013-2017, the total area of ​​destroyed crops annually decreased to an average of about 51 thousand hectares per year. This significant reduction in plantation destruction can be attributed in part to a decision by the National Narcotics Board, which suspended airborne spraying of glyphosate from aircraft in May 2015 for legal and sanitary reasons. Since 2017, Colombia has been implementing eradication programs by ground-spraying coca bush crops with less glyphosate.

In most countries in East and South-East Asia, the increase in the illicit manufacture, trafficking and consumption of synthetic drugs, in particular methamphetamine, remains a major problem. The establishment of an effective border regime and control over precursor chemicals have become especially important in combating this phenomenon, since the region has a large number of chemical industries and an increasingly sophisticated infrastructure contributed to the further strengthening of ties between countries.According to information provided by UNODC, seizures of methamphetamine in the region increased eightfold between 2007 and 2017, reaching a record high in 2018.The findings indicate that in 2018, Thailand accounted for more than half of all methamphetamine seized in the region. Preliminary data for 2019, including for methamphetamine pills, show a trend towards the movement of manufacturing and trafficking from China to other countries in the region. Law enforcement in China is forcing organized crime to move the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine to neighboring countries, including Myanmar, which explains some of the decline in seizures of methamphetamine in China while it is increasing in Myanmar and neighboring countries. With the continued growth of the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine in Myanmar, the Lao People's Democratic Republic has become an important transit country for methamphetamine destined for other countries in the Mekong region.The clandestine manufacture of heroin in the region is concentrated primarily in northern Myanmar. The area under the illegal cultivation of opium poppy in this country was estimated at 37,300 hectares in 2018 against a record 60 thousand hectares in 2014. Since 2017, illicit cannabis cultivation has declined in almost all regions of the country, with significant reductions in Shan and Kachin states (the two main producing states). However, with regard to the seizure of heroin, the opposite trend was observed: in 2018 the overall heroin seizures in Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand increased, with Vietnam in first place. Vietnam accounted for more than a third of all heroin seized in South-East Asia in period from 2013 to 2018. Malaysia also reported on the increase in the volume of illegal traffic through it territory of heroin that was in transit to Australia.

 

 

In 2018, Afghanistan accounted for the bulk of the world's illicit opium poppy cultivation and production. The country also remains one of the world's top sources of cannabis resin. In addition, trafficking in synthetic drugs continues to rise in Afghanistan. The main trafficking route for opiates from Afghanistan remains the Balkan route through the Islamic Republic of Iran, Turkey and the Balkan countries to markets in Western and Central Europe. In recent years, the importance of several branches of the Balkan route has increased, including those passing through the Syrian Arab Republic and Iraq, as well as the countries of the South Caucasus. By the decision of the Council of Heads of State of the SCO member states of June 10, 2018, the anti-drug strategy for the period 2018-2023 and the Program of Action for its implementation, as well as the SCO Concept on the Prevention of the Abuse of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, were approved. The strategy is aimed at enhancing multilateral cooperation in the field of preventing and countering the drug threat. Opiates and other illicit substances also continue to be trafficked from Afghanistan to India and other countries in South Asia for onward shipment to European markets and, to a lesser extent, North America. Air routes are increasingly used to smuggle heroin and other illicit substances from Afghanistan. although these substances were destined mainly for New Delhi, there have been several attempts to smuggle Afghan opiates to Dubai (United Arab Emirates) and Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Between November 2018 and June 2019, at Hamid Karzai International Airport, the anti-trafficking team seized 150 kg of heroin, 17 kg of methamphetamine and 16 kg of cannabis resin and significant amounts of cash, and arrested 154 suspected drug traffickers. Opiates from Afghanistan to the Russian Federation and other European countries were still imported through the Central Asian states along the so-called "northern route". For the illicit trafficking of heroin from Central Asian countries, Russia continues to use mainly road, rail and air transport. Between November 2018 and June 2019, at Hamid Karzai International Airport, the anti-trafficking team seized 150 kg of heroin, 17 kg of methamphetamine and 16 kg of cannabis resin and significant amounts of cash, and arrested 154 suspected drug traffickers. Opiates from Afghanistan to the Russian Federation and other European countries were still imported through the Central Asian states along the so-called "northern route". For the illicit trafficking of heroin from Central Asian countries, Russia continues to use mainly road, rail and air transport. Between November 2018 and June 2019, the anti-trafficking team seized 150 kg of heroin, 17 kg of methamphetamine and 16 kg of cannabis resin and significant amounts of cash at Hamid Karzai International Airport, and arrested 154 suspected drug traffickers. Opiates from Afghanistan to the Russian Federation and other European countries were still imported through the Central Asian states along the so-called "northern route". For the illicit trafficking of heroin from Central Asian countries, Russia continues to use mainly road, rail and air transport. and also arrested 154 people suspected of drug trafficking. Opiates from Afghanistan to the Russian Federation and other European countries were still imported through the Central Asian states along the so-called "northern route". For the illicit trafficking of heroin from Central Asian countries, Russia continues to use mainly road, rail and air transport. and also arrested 154 people suspected of drug trafficking. Opiates from Afghanistan to Russia and other European countries were still imported through the Central Asian states along the so-called "northern route". For the illicit trafficking of heroin from Central Asian countries, Russia continues to use mainly road, rail and air transport.According to UNODC, seizures from the region indicate that opiates are mainly smuggled from Afghanistan to Tajikistan and, to a lesser extent, to Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and then to Kazakhstan. The largest consignments of opiates seized in the region were transported by overland routes from Tajikistan to Kyrgyzstan and then to Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. Heroin is also sometimes smuggled into the Russian Federation by air from Central Asian countries, but this type transport is used less often than land. Seizures for the period 2014-2018 show that illicit opiate trafficking along the northern route has been steadily declining. The "Northern" route (also called the "Silk Road") is an offshoot of the "Balkan route" and today one of the main exports of Afghan opiates is carried out along it. The northern route runs through the territory of all the republics of Central Asia (through Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the Uzbek or Kyrgyz part of the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan or Turkmenistan) to Kazakhstan, Russia and further through Ukraine, Belarus, or the Baltic countries to Eastern Europe, Germany and the Netherlands. Various branches of the route go through the Afghan-Uzbek border and Kazakhstan, as well as across the Afghan-Turkmen border to Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan. In most cases, these paths lead to Russian territory. The northern route was formed in the early 1990s, and this was facilitated by the situation that arose during the creation of the CIS. These are excessive openness of borders, reorganization of border and customs services, lack of experience in countering drug trafficking in law enforcement agencies. The Silk Road attracts the attention of the drug business due to the transparency of the borders between the CIS states, as well as the proximity to the Transcaucasian republics. Border transparency appears to be one of the main factors in the “diversification of drug trafficking” and a condition for the formation of new routes or routing of the “Silk Road”. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran has accelerated the formation of the northern direction. The Silk Road attracts the attention of the drug business due to the transparency of the borders between the CIS states, as well as the proximity to the Transcaucasian republics. Border transparency appears to be one of the main factors in the “diversification of drug trafficking” and a condition for the formation of new routes or routing of the “Silk Road”. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran has accelerated the formation of the northern direction. The Silk Road attracts the attention of the drug business due to the transparency of the borders between the CIS states, as well as the proximity to the Transcaucasian republics. Border transparency appears to be one of the main factors in the “diversification of drug trafficking” and a condition for the formation of new routes or routing of the “Silk Road”. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran has accelerated the formation of the northern direction. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran has accelerated the formation of the northern direction. The Silk Road attracts the attention of the drug business due to the transparency of the borders between the CIS states, as well as the proximity to the Transcaucasian republics. Border transparency appears to be one of the main factors in the “diversification of drug trafficking” and a condition for the formation of new routes or routing of the “Silk Road”. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran hastened the formation of the northern direction. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran hastened the formation of the northern direction. The Silk Road attracts the attention of the drug business due to the transparency of the borders between the CIS states, as well as the proximity to the Transcaucasian republics. Border transparency appears to be one of the main factors in the “diversification of drug trafficking” and a condition for the formation of new routes or routing of the “Silk Road”. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran hastened the formation of the northern direction. Border transparency appears to be one of the main factors in the “diversification of drug trafficking” and a condition for the formation of new routes or routing of the “Silk Road”. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran hastened the formation of the northern direction. Border transparency appears to be one of the main factors in the “diversification of drug trafficking” and a condition for the formation of new routes or routing of the “Silk Road”. Strengthening control over drug trafficking in Iran has accelerated the formation of the northern direction.Today, the market size along the Northern Route is estimated at a total of $ 13 billion per year. In 2018, heroin seizures amounted to 58.61 kg in Kazakhstan, 73.57 kg in Kyrgyzstan, 282.18 kg in Tajikistan and 20.60 kg in Uzbekistan. The main the share of opiates seized in Central Asia was in Tajikistan

 

 

 

 

 

According to Central Asian law enforcement agencies, trafficking in opiates from the region to the Russian Federation continued to decline, which Central Asian authorities attribute to successful law enforcement operations. At the same time, to accurately quantify the amount of opiates trafficked along the northern route, further research is needed to analyze data on the average purity of heroin, its price and average daily consumption, the exemplary number of opiate users and trafficking methods.In recent years, there have been changes in the geographical pattern of the smuggling of methamphetamine into Australia. In 2015, China and Hong Kong, China were the two main shipping points for methamphetamine smuggled into Australia. By 2017, the United States, Thailand and Malaysia were the main shipping points.In 2018, the United States continued to be the main shipping point for amphetamine-type stimulants (excluding MDMA) intercepted at the Australian border. In January 2019, a record amount of methamphetamine destined for Australia - more than 1.7 tons - was seized in the United States as a result of interactions between the Australian and United States authorities. In June 2019, Australia announced the seizure of the largest domestic methamphetamine shipment (nearly 1.6 tonnes), which was hidden in a shipment from Thailand.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries in all regions have reported general shortages of many types of drugs in illicit retail trade, as well as price increases, declining purity of drugs sold and drug users switching to other psychoactive substances (such as heroin on synthetic opioids) and are increasingly seeking help for drug addiction treatment. However, in some countries in the Balkans and the Middle East, where measures to combat COVID-19 have been less stringent, the functioning of illicit drug markets has been less significant.According to the findings, the overall impact on wholesale supply has become more varied, depending on the type of drug and the country. The tightening of controls in response to COVID-19 control measures has had two-fold implications for large illicit drug shipments. Some countries, such as Italy and Central Asia, have seen a sharp decline in drug seizures. Other countries like Niger, reported the cessation of drug trafficking. The usual illicit activities of organized crime drug groups have been disrupted by the emergence of new forms of crime associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, such as cybercrime and the illegal circulation of counterfeit medicines in the Balkan countries. On the other hand, other countries, including Iran and Morocco, reported large seizures, indicating that drug trafficking continues on a large scale, with some countries reporting an increase in drug seizures as a result of increased controls.For example, the intensification of the fight against drugs is observed in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, where information on the positive dynamics of seizures of drugs supplied to small towns and rural settlements (the so-called "rural routes"), which is a characteristic model for this country where young people from low-income strata of the population are attracted.Information from countries along the main routes for heroin transportation indicates that countermeasures against the spread of COVID-19 may have increased the risk of seizures when this type of drug is transported by land. The recent increase in heroin seizures in the Indian Ocean region can be seen as a sign of the increased use of sea routes to transport heroin to Europe along the Southern Route. In the long term, the economic downturn due to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to lead to a long-term transformation of illicit drug markets. The economic hardships caused by the COVID-19 crisis could affect people who are already at a socioeconomic disadvantage. This can lead to an increase in the involvement of people in illegal drug-related activities (production, transportation, etc.), in order to earn a living or in the activities of drug gangs. In the short term, disruption to drug markets could lead to an increase in harmful drug use patterns and the use of new strategies by drug gangs to overcome obstacles. People who use drugs may increasingly use the shadow Internet (Darknet) to bypass controls on the street, and mail-order drug delivery may become more popular. In the short term, disruption to drug markets could lead to an increase in harmful drug use patterns and the use of new strategies by drug gangs to overcome obstacles. People, who use drugs may increasingly use the shadow Internet (Darknet) to circumvent street controls, and mail-order drug delivery may become more popular. In the short term, disruption to drug markets could lead to an increase in harmful drug use patterns and the use of new strategies by drug gangs to overcome obstacles. People who use drugs may increasingly use the shadow Internet (Darknet) to bypass controls on the street, and mail-order drug delivery may become more popular. In the short term, disruption to drug markets could lead to an increase in harmful drug use patterns and the use of new strategies by drug gangs to overcome obstacles. People who use drugs may increasingly use the shadow Internet (Darknet) to bypass controls on the street, and mail-order drug delivery may become more popular. In the short term, disruption to drug markets could lead to an increase in harmful drug use patterns and the use of new strategies by drug gangs to overcome obstacles. People who use drugs may increasingly use the shadow Internet (Darknet) to bypass controls on the street, and mail-order drug delivery may become more popular.Data from the UNODC drug monitoring platform show that drugs of the cocaine group are mainly seized by sea (sea transport), in contrast to opiates, which are mainly seized by road transport (land transport). synthetic drugs are also often transported by air, with certain psychoactive substances being shipped almost exclusively by air to some countries.

 

Over the past decade, drug trafficking has also moved to the virtual space. A lot of forums and markets have appeared on the darknet where a market for the sale of narcotic substances is possible. The most famous is Silk Road. In 2.5 years, the server has grown into the largest Internet site for the sale of heroin, methamphetamine, crack, cocaine, LSD and ecstasy.US Senator Ch. Schumer demanded the closure of Silk Road, certifying the resource as "the most impudent attempt at online drug trafficking in recent years." Vacuum-packed drugs are sent to the store's customers by regular mail - trade is in full swing under the noses of federal services, bitcoins are the currency. According to N. Christina, professor at Carnegie Mellon University, Silk Road's monthly turnover in the first half of 2012 was $ 1,200,000. Since then, the assortment has doubled, and annual revenue, according to Forbes estimates, has increased to $ 30-45 million. Analysis of user activity Tor, conducted at Trinity College Dublin, showed that daily visits to Silk Road are approaching 60,000, with most of them selling or buying drugs.The service is arranged according to the eBay principle - the site charges a commission of 10% for all transactions (with an increase in the volume of a transaction, the commission decreases). Considering that all calculations are made in bitcoins (the rate of the cryptocurrency against the dollar has grown 200 times since the launch of Silk Road in 2011). Fans of digital money can make sure that their transactions with cryptocurrency do not leave traces in the open segment of the network. Bitcoin services are plunging into the depths of the anonymous Internet and are increasingly turning to illegal businesses such as organizing cyber attacks, arms dealing, stolen credit cards, etc. Payment for goods on sites like Silk Road is very difficult to identify. Even the FBI recognizes the "challenges" that cryptocurrencies pose to the authorities. In fact, it's as convenient as PayPal, and theoretically as anonymous as cash.

In the last years of the twentieth century, there was a tendency towards the concentration of production of narcotic drugs. There is an increase in drug production capacities, as evidenced by the numerous facts of the discovery of giant laboratories for the production of cocaine. Handicraft and low-productivity manufactories are being replaced by high-tech compact laboratories and large industrial enterprises, which are serviced by qualified specialists.... In the Mexican state of Durango in the northeast of the country, army units found a drug production complex, which was located in a remote mountainous area. The world's largest drug factory was seized - 22 building shops are located on an area of ​​240 hectares. The synthetic drug methamphetamine was produced here and hemp was processed. Several thousand kilograms of marijuana and about 40 thousand liters of chemical liquids for the production of drugs were seized.The chemicals seized on the spot, authorities said, would be sufficient toto carry out 40.2 tons of drugs, 309 million doses. Military uniforms, a large number of weapons, and vehicles were found on the territory of the factory. According to the investigation, the "factory" was serviced by more than 100 people, including chemists. The next important trend in the drug business is the increased mobility of producers. Revealed the facts of drug production in mobile laboratories located in vans and trucks. Such laboratories rarely come to the attention of law enforcement agencies and, continuously producing drugs on the way, deliver the finished product to the destination. The capacity of one of these laboratories, identified in Colombia, was 70 kg of cocaine per day.

Ukraine is not one of the main drug-producing countries, but due to its advantageous geographical location, it represents a significant transit "corridor" for drugs (especially heroin) produced in the East, as well as in Central and South-West Asia (Afghanistan) and their transit traffic through Russia, the Caucasus and Turkey to Western Europe. Some of the illegal drug trafficking routes passing through Ukraine originate in Latin America and Africa. The domestic market of Ukraine is increasingly exposed to drugs smuggled both from Asia and from Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, Romania and the Baltic republics). The presence of numerous ports on the Black and Azov Seas, a large number of river transport routes, The poorly guarded presence of a “gray” zone in Donbass in connection with the Russian aggression and insufficient funding of the border service turn Ukraine into a country with convenient routes for drug transit to the illegal drug market of the European Union. Last week of December 2020According to the National Police, the police blocked two international drug supply channels in Ukraine, stopped the activities of three powerful drug laboratories and liquidated more than 100 online stores, through which about 50,000 doses of drugs were sold every day throughout Ukraine. The cost of drugs, psychotropic drugs and precursors seized during searches at black market prices is about UAH 50 million... In addition, 113,000 US dollars, 158,000 hryvnias, weapons, gadgets, rough notes, and six cars were seized.

Arms trade

Today, in terms of profitability and dynamism of development, illicit arms trafficking is second only to the drug business. The difference between legal and illicit arms transfers is largely determined not by the nature of the product, but by who the end user is. Black market arms deals are clandestine activities, where a significant portion of the costs are associated with the clandestine nature of such transactions, and the return flow of funds goes through a legalization process. Political instability and related armed conflicts also contribute to a sharp increase in demand on the illegal arms market. Illicit arms sales have increased as a result of ethnic, religious and nationalist outbreaks, which in some cases escalated into open warfare in regions such as the Balkan Peninsula, Ukraine, Russia, the Caucasus,

UNODC has conducted the most comprehensive data collection on firearms trafficking, collecting details from survey responses and other sources in 81 countries for 2016-2017.Pistols are the most common type of firearm in the world. However, this trend is largely driven by geography. The Americas are the region with the largest number of seized firearms overall. Pistols accounted for over 50 percent of all firearms seized in the region during the reporting period. In Africa and Asia, shotguns were the most prominent type of weapon. Rifles (shotguns) were the main type of firearms seized in Oceania, and in Europe the distribution between pistols, rifles and shotguns was more even. However, many countries in Africa and Asia have a weak capacity to intercept and account for illicit firearms trafficking, which can lead to underreporting of some firearms. In addition, the general figures reported by countries include seizures that are not directly related to trafficking. Most of the seizures of firearms take place in national territories; removal at borders averages less than 10 percent of all interceptions. The routes of the seized firearms indicate that transnational arms trafficking flows are mainly concentrated within continents. North America plays a significant role as a supply sub-region for other sub-regions, especially South and Central America and West Asia. North America, Europe and West Asia together made up virtually all of the starting points of the arms trade in 2016-17. Central and South America, along with Western Asia, accounted for more than 80 percent of the delivery of weapons. These main destination areas are known for high levels of criminal violence or armed conflict, and this shows the link between the illegal traffic in firearms and violent death. The cost of buying firearms in the illicit market is usually significantly higher than in the legal market, reflecting the additional risks and speculation associated with the black market. However, there are also exceptions. In Latin America and, for example, in the Caribbean, the prices of illegal pistols were lower than the prices of legal ones. This indicates a sufficient availability of pistols on the illicit market. Price data from Europe point to the Western Balkans as a potential illicit source of firearms, especially assault rifles. Such weapons were much cheaper in the Western Balkans than in the rest of Europe. The illicit manufacture, conversion, reactivation, and assembly of firearms is also present in some European countries, reflecting national control mechanisms that make access to firearms legally difficult. Weapon modifications can also serve the needs of criminals to use smaller or more powerful weapons.

 

In Africa, the largest amounts of seized weapons were recorded in Angola and Kenya. In addition to the prevalence of rifles in general, noticeable volumes of machine guns were seized in Tunisia and submachine guns in Burundi. In the Central African Republic, in addition to various weapons such as grenades, artisanal weapons and guns, weapons were seized mainly from rifles and machine guns.However, it appears that many countries in Africa and Asia have a weak capacity to intercept and record illicit firearms trafficking, which may lead to underreporting of some firearms. In Latin America and the Caribbean, large seizures of weapons were reported by Colombia and Argentina. However, no reliable data were available for Brazil. The proportion of rifles seized in Mexico was significantly higher than in other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Among all regions, the types of weapons seized in Europe were the most diverse. Among weapons that can be clearly classified as firearms, pistols accounted for an average of 35 percent of seizures, followed by rifles (27 percent), shotguns (22 percent) and revolvers (11 percent). the rest falls on submachine guns and machine guns (4 5 percent). In addition, on average, Europe has the highest number of different types of weapons registered - this may be due to recycling and other forms of improvisation as ways of obtaining illegal firearms.In Asia and Oceania, coverage was very limited. The number of weapons seized was very high in Australia, but this included administrative seizures. The relative importance of guns was the same as in Africa, with a relatively high proportion of this type of weapon registered in neighboring countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, as well as in Lebanon.

 

 

The Darknet in recent years has become a new vehicle for the circulation of illegal weapons, which are already on the black market, as well as a potential source of arms supplies, legally owned. While the arms trade is small in volume compared to other goods traded over the Internet, its potential impact on international security is significant. Despite efforts to regulate firearms, there are many ways for fraudulent entrepreneurs to circumvent arms controls and trade across international borders. This issue has proven to be particularly relevant to EU security despite tough firearms controls. One possible path is the "dark web", which hosts many different black online markets,The role of the dark web has increased since the 2016 Munich shooting, in which a lone terrorist used a weapon, via the Darknet". RAND Europe and the University of Manchester UK jointlyconducted research commissioned by the Council for Economic and Social Research through the Partnership on Conflict, Crime and Security Program to investigate the spread of illegal firearms over the Internet. The findings noted that the Darknet increases the availability of more efficient, more recent firearms at the same or lower price than what would be available on the street on the black market.The United States is the most common source of weapons products on the dark web. Nearly 60% of food-related firearms originate from the United States. This is followed by a number of European countries, which account for about 25%, while undetermined places of origin account for about 12%. However, Europe is the largest market for the arms trade, generating revenues about five times that of the United States.Firearms lists (42%) were the most common on the web, followed by digital goods related to weapons (27%) and others, including ammunition (22%). Pistols were the most frequently listed firearms (84%), rifles (10%), submachine guns (6%). Trading digital weapons-related goods creates additional challenges. These items are often textbooks containing tutorials on a wide range of illegal activities, from converting non-combat weapons to completely making homemade guns and explosives, and containing models that can be 3D printed into fully functional firearms.

The total cost of the arms trade on the darknet, based on the 12 crypto markets analyzed in the study, is roughly $ 80,000 a month, and firearms account for nearly 90% of all revenues. Estimates of the value and volume of arms trade on the dark web may include a certain percentage of fake listings or transactions, especially among firearms dealers. However, it is difficult to establish the extent of fraud on the dark web. According to the authors of the study, it is unlikely to be a method for fueling conflicts, since weapons are not supplied on a large enough scale due to the potential limitation of infrastructure and services in the conflict zone. On the other hand, the Darknet network can become a platform of choice for individuals (for example, lone wolf terrorists) or small groups (for example, gangs) to obtain weapons and ammunition behind a veil of anonymity. In addition, the dark web can be used by vulnerable and fixed individuals to acquire firearms. The type of illegal arms trade poses new challenges for law enforcement. These challenges are largely related to the anonymity of the people who use the network to acquire weapons.

No one undertakes to assess the scale of the black market for weapons in Ukraine - due to the lack of methods... The head of the Ukrainian Association of Weapons Owners (UAVO) G. Uchaikin is sure that buying weapons on the black market can be as easy as buying drugs or negotiating with a prostitute. this may pose some difficulties, but if desired, such an acquisition will not present any particular problems.As of 2007, there were about 3.1 million illegal weapons, according to a study by the Swiss company Small Arms Survey, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. The main reason for the jump on the "black market" is the conflict in Donbass, which made weapons available not only for direct participants in hostilities, but also for those who want to resell them in peaceful regions. This is also facilitated by the lack of regularity of law enforcement agencies in collecting data - they have not yet registered all the weapons that were inherited from the Soviet Union.The Ministry of Internal Affairs does not undertake to calculate the exact number of weapons, but about the saturation of the market, says S. Redka, Deputy Head of the Criminal Investigation Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, pointing to a sharp drop in prices for illegal weapons. By the beginning of the operation in Donbass, a Kalashnikov assault rifle could be purchased for three thousand dollars. After - for a thousand. And in the conflict zone, the cost of the world's most widespread model of small arms reaches $ 100. According to an expert at the Prague Institute for Security Studies, Petro Poymannaya, it has become even more difficult to transport weapons across the western Ukrainian border after the change of power in Kiev than before Maidan.... But these complications are offset by growing demand on the European black market through Brussels' efforts to curb the circulation of legal weapons.

In countries with a traditionally liberal attitude towards firearms, stricter rules lead to the fact that those wishing to acquire weapons are beginning to look closely at the opportunity to arm themselves in circumvention of the law. And the oversaturated Ukrainian "black market" is ready to satisfy the needs of such customers. For all 2019,according to the GPU, 6204 offenses were classified as illegal handling of weapons, ammunition and explosives. Of these, only about 100 cases are attributed to owners of officially registered hunting weapons. At the same time, the methodology for recording offenses used by the Prosecutor General's Office using firearms and explosives does not give a complete picture. In 2017, the Anti-Terrorism Center under the SBU introduced restrictions on the import and export of personal weapons into the territory of the Joint Forces Operation.Checks at the checkpoint have intensified and the number of illegal barrels from the territory of CADLO has been reduced. In 2018, the chief military prosecutor of Ukraine made public the number of unregistered firearms in the hands of Ukrainians - 400 thousand units.In the local press, there are data of three or even five million units. Meanwhile, according to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in 2018, Ukrainians voluntarily surrendered 5,000 weapons to the authorities, and in 11 months of 2019 - 16,000.

 

 

 

Illegal migration and trade in "human goods"

Migration problems are multifaceted, and therefore attract the attention of researchers in various fields of knowledge: historians, sociologists, philosophers, political scientists, demographers, criminologists. Population migration is inherent in society at any period of its development. People have never been attached to any particular place of residence. They moved (migrated) in search of the most convenient and profitable habitats. Migration was either spontaneous, then they tried to organize and plan it, and there were cases when masses of people moved forcibly. Illegal migration is one of the forms of territorial displacement of the population, the specificity of which lies in the fact that in the process of such displacement, as well as the stay of migrants (foreign citizens and stateless persons) in the receiving state violates the norms of international and national legislation of the respective countries. Illegal migration in accordance with international documents manifests itself in two types of acts. The first - smuggling of migrants - means providing for the purpose of obtaining, directly or indirectly, any financial or other material benefit, illegal entry into any state of any person who is not its citizen or does not reside permanently on its territory. The second - illegal entry - means crossing borders without observing the necessary requirements for legal entry into the state. The illegal transfer of migrants has characteristic features. It is carried out in the overwhelming majority with the presence of an intermediary, which organizes the border crossing. Moreover, such an intermediary is not always associated with organized crime. In studies of illegal migration and, in particular, illegal transfer of migrants, it is noted that the profit is obtained from the funds that an illegal migrant pays to an intermediary for transportation (transfer). Debt bondage is hardly practiced. If it does arise, monetary claims appear on the illegal migrant, which, in turn, can turn into the exploitation of the latter. When smuggling migrants, crossing state borders is carried out illegally (bypassing border control) or semi-legal. “Semi-legal migrants” arrive in the country from outside legally, but remain in an illegal position (the purpose of arrival, date, etc. are falsely indicated). Scientists, those specializing in research on illegal migration, among the characteristic features of this phenomenon are also named: the involvement of an intermediary who is engaged in the illegal transfer of migrants; reliable shelter at checkpoints; border crossing with escort; employment in the country of destination; entry or stay is illegal; voluntary movement of people. The exact number of illegal immigrants in the world is now unknown to anyone. For obvious reasons, illegal immigrants are not included in government statistics, so think tanks are forced to resort to rough estimates and assessments of the situation. The vast majority of migrants smuggled from the Horn of Africa to southern Africa used land routes involvement of an intermediary who is engaged in the illegal transfer of migrants; reliable shelter at checkpoints; border crossing with escort; employment in the country of destination; entry or stay is illegal; voluntary movement of people. The exact number of illegal immigrants in the world is now unknown to anyone. For obvious reasons, illegal immigrants are not included in government statistics, so think tanks are forced to resort to rough estimates and assessments of the situation. The vast majority of migrants smuggled from the Horn of Africa to southern Africa used land routes involvement of an intermediary who is engaged in the illegal transfer of migrants; reliable shelter at checkpoints; border crossing with escort; employment in the country of destination; entry or stay is illegal; voluntary movement of people. The exact number of illegal immigrants in the world is now unknown to anyone. For obvious reasons, illegal immigrants are not included in government statistics, so think tanks are forced to resort to rough estimates and assessments of the situation. The vast majority of migrants smuggled from the Horn of Africa to southern Africa used land routes voluntary movement of people. The exact number of illegal immigrants in the world is now unknown to anyone. For obvious reasons, illegal immigrants are not included in government statistics, so think tanks are forced to resort to rough estimates and assessments of the situation. The vast majority of migrants smuggled from the Horn of Africa to southern Africa used land routes voluntary movement of people. The exact number of illegal immigrants in the world is now unknown to anyone. For obvious reasons, illegal immigrants are not included in government statistics, so think tanks are forced to resort to rough estimates and assessments of the situation. The vast majority of migrants smuggled from the Horn of Africa to southern Africa used land routes... In recent years, among about 400 migrants surveyed, about 10 percent traveled by air, while only 1 percent by boat. Measures to strengthen or reduce border controls with a subsequent increase or decrease in the risks of identifying smuggled migrants, if taken on their own, usually lead to a fast track moving, not changing the total illegal migrants. Tighter border controls often increase the risks for migrants and provide more profit opportunities for smugglers. For example, during the period 2009-2015. Substantial part of registered illegal activities between Turkey and Russia and The European Union switched from land routes to sea routes, in response to increased controls on various borders.

Although routes may change, smuggling hubs, where demand and supply of services, respectively, are stable. The centers are key for the transport of illegal migrants. They serve as meeting places where different paths converge and agree on further routes. The smuggling centers are often located in capitals or large cities, although these may also be remote cities where most of the economic activity is associated with migrants. As a rule, smuggling networks are not involved in forms of large transnational organized crime. However, in some parts of the world, smuggling networks have ties to larger criminal organizations that exercise stricter control. they have to pay for the "right" to allow migrants to travel safely, for example, along the border between the United States and Mexico. In other cases, smugglers may turn migrants into groups for extortion, ransom, robbery or other exploitation. Many smuggling networks use systematic corruption at most levels; from petty corruption on the individual border of corruption at the highest levels of government. Currently, the most profitable and widespread are the smuggling passages involving sea crossings - through the Mediterranean Sea to southern Europe, from the Horn of Africa to the Arabian Peninsula and through the Andaman Sea in Southeast Asia. Smuggling by sea to Australia from Southeast Asia is less profitable. Currently, the most profitable and massive are the smuggling passages involving sea crossings - across the Mediterranean Sea to southern Europe, from the Horn of Africa to the Arabian Peninsula and across the Andaman Sea to Southeast Asia. Smuggling by sea to Australia from Southeast Asia is less profitable. Currently, the most profitable and widespread are the smuggling passages involving sea crossings - through the Mediterranean Sea to southern Europe, from the Horn of Africa to the Arabian Peninsula and through the Andaman Sea in Southeast Asia. Smuggling by sea to Australia from Southeast Asia is less profitable. from the Horn of Africa to the Arabian Peninsula and across the Andaman Sea to Southeast Asia. Smuggling by sea to Australia from Southeast Asia is less profitable. from the Horn of Africa to the Arabian Peninsula and across the Andaman Sea to Southeast Asia. Smuggling by sea to Australia from Southeast Asia is less profitable.

 

 

Many smuggling routes use more than one type of transport. Often, migrants are transported by combined routes by land, sea or air. The route from the Horn of Africa to the Middle East requires crossing by land to Djibouti or Somalia, by sea to Yemen and again by land to other countries of Arabia. The migrants, often with the assistance of smugglers, are then transported across the sea to Greece along the Eastern Mediterranean Route, and then continue along the Western Balkan Route (often with smugglers). Smugglers provide migrants with contact lists for each route. As soon as they managed to cross one border, migrants can receive instructions to move to a certain place and contact a specific person, facilitate the transition to the next border. This continues as long until the final destination is reached. Criminal organizations operating in this manner are capable of moving people relatively quickly. For example, polls have shown that smugglers can move migrants from South Asia through West Asia and Greece along the Middle Sea route in about 15-20 days. Migrant citizenship can also determine the type of travel. For migrants who do not seek refuge, smugglers organize travel routes and landing sites with less border control. For migrants planning to hide at their destination, short, fast-track routes are used to avoid detection. In the latter cases, smugglers can drop off migrants at the seaside and return to their previous point of departure.So, according to the MOZKM, some migrants die as a result of the actions of border services, law enforcement agencies and the actions of the criminal groups themselves during the transition. One of the most dangerous routes is actively used for illegal migration from African countries, is located in sub-Saharan Africa, and extends to North Africa and Europe. In addition to the rigor of overland travel through the semi-arid Sahel and the Sahara Desert, the smugglers' lack of concern for the health and lives of migrants makes travel even more risky. Migrants are regularly transported across the desert in overloaded trucks or pickup trucks, often at high speeds and with insufficient food and water. Trucks and pickup trucks often break down, and passengers who are sick are abandoned in the desert to their fate.During their travels, migrants are often vulnerable to violence and robbery. According to the study, about 65 percent of the Somalis surveyed along the smuggling route to South Africa were beaten or robbed at least once during their trip to South Africa. Similar risks were recorded on almost all routes. A frequently reported form of violence - which can ultimately lead to death - is extortion for ransom. This practice has been documented along many different smuggling routes, especially along routes from South to North America, and along routes from Southwest Asia to Europe. However, smugglers often hand over hostages to criminal groups when crossing the border or sell migrants already as "live goods" to the places of arrival of the main transit hubs. The urgent need for financial resources can make them vulnerable to deception. Those who paid for the trip in advance - like one package from origin to destination - also run the risk of becoming exploited. Unaccompanied minors and youth migrants, in particular, are often pressured by relatives to return the “investment” made by their families to pay smugglers to travel, and this pressure can lead to exploitative work. In some cases, children also become victims of sexual exploitation or engage in illegal activities such as selling drugs. Social media is also used to promote smuggling services. This is often done by posting ads on Facebook or other forums, which are usually used by migrants to exchange views and experiences. In their posts, representatives of criminal gangs present their proposals, often inserting attractive images. They emphasize payment methods; for example, payment after the required visa has been provided. They can also ask potential customers to contact them directly through a wide range of messaging services, some of which also offer the benefit of anonymity. You can find different "travel packages" - from cruises to flights. It usually advertises a "guaranteed visa" to the destination country, as well as passports or any other travel documents. By selling their services, smugglers often cheat migrants and direct illegal migration to or away from certain transit and destination countries.It has also been found that representatives of certain syndicates targeting Afghan migrants act as "legal advisors" for safe havens for migrants on social media.

For example, in 2000 in the United States, three agencies that professionally deal with this issue did three different studies. According to the Department of Homeland Security, there are 7 million illegal aliens in the US; US Census Bureau estimates 8 million; The Institute of Urban Studies came to the conclusion that there were no more than 5-6 million illegal immigrants in the United States. According to the UN, in late 2005 - early 2006 there were 190-200 million migrants in the world. as one year. Illegals are moving not only to "rich" countries. Among the countries of the world in which the number of people without documents is the greatest are Mexico, Argentina, Egypt, India, Turkey. Some of these states attract illegal immigrants by economic opportunities, others - by the passivity of the authorities, and still others act as "transshipment points". For example, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus are facing an influx of immigrants from Asia who are trying to move to Europe. The business of delivering illegal migrants is very risky, but at the same time, extremely profitable and not inferior in profitability to drug and arms smuggling. An extensive network of companies and firms engaged in this field has been created and operates in the world. The payment for illegal immigration reaches $ 30 thousand. depending on the country of destination, the distance of the route. According to the International Organization for Migration, from illegal transport of migrants alone, criminal organizations receive 3.5. mlr. Doll. USA arrived. Interpol data show that illegal transporters of people around the world earn more than $ 30 billion annually. According to other data, for the period 2014-2016, up to 150 thousand migrants from the Middle East and Africa were transported to Europe by illegal routes only by sea. In the United States, the number of illegal migrants grows to 20 thousand every year.And if for the period of 2010 the official statistics recorded the number of 61 thousand, then in 2016 the figure was already 151 thousand.According to UN figures, more than 660,000 illegal immigrants enter Thailand annually from neighboring countries, and, based on field research, more than 80 percent of them have benefited from the help of smugglers. This indicates that about 550,000 migrants are trafficked to Thailand annually. Based on the study, in 2010, illegal migration earned about 192 million US dollars. Another lucrative smuggling route leads migrants and refugees from Southwest Asia to Turkey. Some of them continue their journey to Western Europe along the Eastern Mediterranean Route, and some settle in Turkey. The route is used to transport Southwest Asians, mainly migrants and refugees from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran, and to a lesser extent Iraq. According to official statistics in 2016, about 162 thousand. migrants and refugees were transported by land from Southwest Asia to Turkey, of which 13 thousand were Pakistanis, 15 thousand Iranians and at least 20 thousand from Afghanistan. The total amount received by criminal organizations for transporting illegal immigrants is more than $ 300,000,000. In 2020 Turkey announces opening of border with EU for illegal migrantsdue to the inability to cope with the new wave of migrants from Syria. After that, thousands of illegal immigrants poured into the border with Greece.

The negative consequences of illegal migration are also manifested in the weak social protection of illegal immigrants or none at all. Many live in poor conditions, unsuitable premises, hostels, and negatively affects their health. Among them, the incidence of various infectious diseases, including tuberculosis and AIDS, is higher. The conditions and mode of work lead to mental and physical stress, nervous strain. Illegal migrants are under constant fear of being detained, losing their jobs, and being expelled from the country. Illegal migration feeds the shadow economy. A significant proportion of businesses that attract foreign citizens to work use illegal migrants, who often work in clandestine or zero-balance fly-by-night firms. So,according to one study, the informal sector of the Russian economy employs8200000. Human, half of whom are illegal migrants. According to other data, 9 out of 10 migrants are employed in the shadow economy. The proportion of illegal immigrants ranges from 50% to 90% of all labor migrants. Thus, illegal migration acts as a factor in the development of the shadow economy, the “shadow market” of labor and, as a result, determines economic crime.

The speaker of the State Border Service Andriy Demchenko told BBC News Ukraine that 3286 illegal migrants were detained in Ukraine in 2018. Of these, 1,130 wanted to illegally cross the border, and more than 2,000 violated the rules of stay in Ukraine. The latter group mainly includes citizens of neighboring states. In 2018, there were 1480 citizens of Moldova, 150 citizens of Russia and 100 citizens of Bulgaria. For 9 months of 2019 (as of September 30), 2,060 illegal migrants were detained in Ukraine, 830 of them for an attempt to illegally cross the border, more than a thousand for violation of the rules of stay. Among those who violated the rules of stay in Ukraine, citizens of Moldova again prevailed - 681 people, several dozen detained violators - from Turkey and Russia.

Given that illegal migration and human trafficking are often interconnected, it is nevertheless necessary to consider them as related but distinct criminological phenomena. So, if illegal migration is the movement of citizens of another state into the territory of a state contrary to the established rules and requirements, then trafficking in persons is defined as the use of various forms of coercion for the exploitation of a person in the sexual sphere, in the sphere of forced labor or services.In Art. 1 of the Law of Ukraine "On Combating Human Trafficking" human trafficking is defined as the implementation of an illegal transaction involving a person, as well as the recruitment, movement, concealment, transfer or receipt of a person committed for the purpose of exploitation, including sexual exploitation, using deception, fraud, blackmail, a vulnerable state of a person or using or the threat of violence, with the use of official position or material or other dependence on another person, according to the Criminal Code of Ukraine, is recognized as a crime. Trafficking in human beings, according to UN experts, is considered the third most profitable area of ​​organized crime, especially in terms of its transnational component, along with arms and drug trafficking.The UN Center for International Crime Prevention estimates that the global human trafficking market gives 12 billion annually. dollars in profit.Due to its criminal and hidden nature and its impact on the economy in which victims of trafficking are forced to work, accurate statistics on the extent of the problem are not possible and the available statistics may be unreliable. The problem of obtaining reliable statistics is complicated by the fact that victims rarely report their social status and are often unwilling to cooperate with law enforcement officials if they are identified and rescued. This is due to a number of reasons. Fear of reprisals by traffickers, lack of trust in the authorities, the belief that the authorities cannot or does not want to help, rejection by their families and the lack of opportunities in their home countries make many women refuse to cooperate with the pro-government structures of the countries of destination. Victims may not consider themselves exploited, especially if they are in love with their trader / pimp or, despite exploitation, if they earn more than they could in their country. Police can record `` alleged '' victims of human trafficking based on the number of `` rescues '' of those who find work in bars, brothels, massage parlors, farms, factories, or as domestic servants. Immigration services can register cases of human trafficking based on interceptions - the number of persons caught trying to illegally leave or enter the destination country (either without proper documentation or with fake documents). victims of human trafficking based on the number of `` rescues '' of those who found work in bars, brothels, massage parlors, farms, factories, or as domestic servants. Immigration services can register cases of human trafficking based on interceptions - the number of persons caught trying to illegally leave or enter the destination country (either without proper documentation or with fake documents). victims of human trafficking based on the number of `` rescues '' of those who found work in bars, brothels, massage parlors, farms, factories, or as domestic servants. Immigration services can register cases of human trafficking based on interceptions - the number of persons caught trying to illegally leave or enter the destination country (either without proper documentation or with fake documents). victims of human trafficking based on the number of `` rescues '' of those who found work in bars, brothels, massage parlors, farms, factories, or as domestic servants. Immigration services can register cases of human trafficking based on interceptions - the number of persons caught attempting to illegally leave or enter the destination country (either without proper documentation or with fake documents). victims of human trafficking based on the number of `` rescues '' of those who found work in bars, brothels, massage parlors, farms, factories, or as domestic servants. Immigration services can register cases of human trafficking based on interceptions - the number of persons caught attempting to illegally leave or enter the destination country (either without proper documentation or with fake documents).

Human trafficking does not recognize state borders, it easily adapts to both poverty and luxury, and is relevant for peoples living in peaceful conditions and those involved in military conflicts. In the aspect of human trafficking, it is the trafficking of women that is acquiring global significance today, since their export to the world markets of the sex industry is the most common form of this crime. Being associated with the sex industry and the financial machinations behind it, trafficking in human beings, turning a person into a slave, has a detrimental effect on the development of the entire society. There are several main directions of evolution of the definition of "trafficking in persons", which reflect the level of their interpretation at that time. Sequentially, these changes consisted of the transition from physical recruitment (procuring) to obtaining commercial benefits from the exploitation of prostitution; from coercion to "consent" and again to coercion and deception; from “trafficking in women” to “human smuggling (trafficking)” and “illegal transport of migrants”; from protectionist views to protection of human rights of victims of trafficking; from “prostitution” to a wider range of informal and irregular labor. Sexual exploitation is just one of the forms of exploitation and forced labor that victims of human trafficking are subjected to. The victims were caught in a forced labor situation, especially in remote areas that are more marginalized. They are forced to work in the household or in the agricultural sector, are often solitary and have no contact. from “prostitution” to a wider range of informal and irregular labor. Sexual exploitation is just one of the forms of exploitation and forced labor that victims of human trafficking are subjected to. The victims were caught in a forced labor situation, especially in remote areas that are more marginalized. They are forced to work in the household or in the agricultural sector, are often solitary and have no contact. from “prostitution” to a wider range of informal and irregular labor. Sexual exploitation is just one of the forms of exploitation and forced labor that victims of human trafficking are subjected to. The victims were caught in a forced labor situation, especially in remote areas that are more marginalized. They are forced to work in the household or in the agricultural sector, are often solitary and have no contact.Trafficking operations for labor exploitation tend to go unnoticed or may last longer than trafficking in the sex industry before they can be found and released, according to the US Department of Justice. On average, trafficking operations in the sex industry can last approximately one to two and a half years, while in other forced labor areas typically lasted from four and a half to six and a half years.

 

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) maintains a database of victims of trafficking in persons that covers over 80 nationalities and 90 countries of destination. In the IOM database, victims are usually young single women: less than 19 percent of the interviewed victims are men, the majority are between 18 and 25 (56.9 percent) and more than 74 percent are under the age of 25. More than half (55 percent) are single, divorced or widowed; only 8 percent were married.In some countries, traditional practices facilitate trafficking in women and girls. There are special factors that stimulate them to seek different paths of life and, as a result, fall into slavery. In many societies, girls are valued less than men. The custom of early and arranged marriage of young girls, especially with an older man, can be seen as a way of overcoming the poverty of his family. In other countries, female children are viewed as an economic responsibility when the family must issue a dowry to the groom after marriage. In addition, in many countries in Africa and the South, there is a demand for young virgins as an exotic "commodity".

An important stage in the development of the concept of human trafficking was the World Conference on Human Rights, which took place in Vienna in 1993, when for the first time violence against women was recognized as a violation of human rights. It is from the standpoint of protecting human rights that a number of international documents on combating human trafficking have been developed in recent years. These are the Hague Ministerial Declaration (1997), the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000), the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the 2000 Convention. Brussels Declaration (2002. ), The European Convention against Trafficking in Human Beings (2005), and others, which emphasize that trafficking in human beings is a violation of human rights.The 2005 European Convention on Measures against Trafficking in Persons addresses “Trafficking in persons” as recruiting, transporting, transferring, harboring or receiving people through the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, kidnapping, fraud, abuse of power or a defenseless state, or the provision or receipt of payment or benefit to reach the consent of a person who has authority over by another person for the purpose of exploitation. A common feature of crimes is human trafficking, the use of force, deception or coercion to exploit a person for profit. The victim may be subject to labor exploitation, sexual exploitation, or both.

The International Labor Organization estimates that in 2016, 28.7 million women and girls worldwide fell victim to forced labor, debt bondage, forced marriage, modern slavery and human trafficking. The majority of traffickers are men. From 2017 to 2018, 74,514 persons were identified as victims of trafficking in more than 110 countries around the world.According to experts, the main factors allowing smugglers to lure women and girls into their networks are poverty and inequality. Women are more likely than men to work in low-paid jobs, including in the informal sector.

Organized crime related to human trafficking exists under the guise of commercial structures, various types of enterprises and institutions, bureaus of good services, nightclubs, travel agencies, employment firms, marriage agencies, and their representatives are actively involved in human trafficking. Criminal groups organize a channel for the delivery of people to the territory of any state, receiving income in the form of payment for such export and import. In the criminological understanding, the roles in an organized group are clearly distributed with the allocation of organizers, recruiters (direct performers of trade - sellers who accompany the "victim" abroad, as well as within a specific country), liaisons and intermediaries. The functions of the organizer are general management of the group, financial support of the group members, connected with corrupt officials regarding concealment from social control of criminal activity, protection from criminal prosecution of members of the group in the event of its exposure. The organizer also ensures the effective use and distribution of the profits from criminal activities among the participants, establishes contacts with other criminal organizations both at the domestic and international levels, plans the criminal activities of the group and develops measures to counter law enforcement structures, controls the activities of the participants and distributes roles and functions between them. ... The recruiter's job is to find victims for their subsequent sale. In most cases, recruitment is carried out through deception or abuse of trust. A potential victim is first provided with inaccurate information about the nature and conditions of future real or imaginary work, attracted by a wealthy life, high earnings, easy income, show the profitability of such an agreement, decorating or diminishing their future work responsibilities, for convincing reasons they give examples of successful employment or marriage ... The recruiter can organize border crossing and transfer of the victim: assistance in obtaining official documents or fake supplies, provision of temporary housing, etc. The main thing for the recruiter is the process of establishing contacts with future “victims” and, as practice shows, when providing services between the recruiter and the victim close ties are formed. Trafficker smuggles a woman and forces her into prostitution, or transfers it to someone else who contributes to his illegal entry into the country of destination. At this point, a young woman is sold to a brothel owner,

During the transportation phase, the victims will be kept in the same city or village or will be moved within their own country. International trafficking victims are trafficked across borders, increasing the likelihood that fake documents or government corruption are needed to facilitate these activities. During the transportation phase, violence can be used to maintain control over the victims.Research conducted by UNICRI in Nigeria and the Philippines reveals two very different human trafficking practices.Most of the victims of human trafficking from the Philippines have traveled by air and arrive at their destination in a few hours. During the transport phase, victims were sometimes accommodated in hotels. Their operation was disrupted only upon arrival in the country of destination. The picture emerging from Nigeria is very different. The study noted that women and young girls trafficked from Nigeria to Italy are being exploited early in Lagos, where traffickers hold victims for up to two weeks. During transportation, especially overland, victims are also sexually exploited, with some victims eventually becoming pregnant. Many victims have to go into prostitution while traveling in order to survive.

The trafficking of children takes many forms and resembles the recruitment schemes used among adults. Mafia-type organizations were involved in the cases of teenage boys who were taken to Italy from Gabon and Senegal. These organizations recruit children in their countries of origin through threats or deception, then transport them by boat or with fake travel documents by plane to Italy. Once in Italy, the boys were forced to illegally trade drugs on the streets or transport, crackling, cocaine and heroin. They were constantly monitored by traffickers and exposed to threats of violence. Traffickers are known to distort victims' fingers with chemicals in order to avoid identification from the police side based on fingerprint recognition. Trafficking young boys for sexual exploitation is a new modelSexual exploitation is often associated with child sex tourism in countries such as the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Sri Lanka or Thailand. The US Department of State reports that boys who are involved in prostitution are an increasing problem in Ghana and The Gambia. International ILO Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (ILO-IPEC) estimates that there are 1,200,000 children for sale worldwide. The child trafficking pattern varies by region, although the commercial sexual exploitation of children has been found in all regions of the world.In East Asia and the Pacific, most of the children trafficked are often in prostitution, although some are exploited in agriculture and industrial work, in shops, begging and domestic work. In Africa, children are used in prostitution, domestic work, mining and armed conflict. In West Africa, young children are forced to work in car washes, beggars, domestic workers, small traders, and farms. or in stone quarries. In Europe, children are trafficked for the purpose of sexual and labor exploitation in agriculture and for crime. Girls as young as 13, mostly from Eastern Europe and Asia, are forced to engage in pornography or prostitution. Children in Southeastern Europe are trafficked into begging and plantation work. The US Department of Justice investigated cases of traffickers who exploited children as domestic slaves. Children in the Middle East are exploited for domestic work and commercial sex. In China, children are often kidnapped and forced to work in stone quarries. This picture is different in America and the Caribbean, where children are trafficked through child sex tourism. In South Asia, children are trafficked into slavery to pay off debts. In the Gulf countries, children under the age of five from South Asia and Africa are forced to become camel jockeys. In other parts of the world, boys are kidnapped or sold by their parents, mercenaries, and later used as soldiers for dirty work. Children who are victims of labor exploitation do not have to " must be insured against sexual abuse or sexual exploitation. Children hired as domestic servants in families report being mistreated by their owners. For example, girls from rural Nepal were recruited to work in carpet factories or in hotels in the city, but then they were sent to the sex industry across the border in India. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) reports that the sex industry is the predominant form of child exploitation in almost all countries. This practice results in systematic, long-term physical and emotional abuse. girls from rural Nepal were recruited to work in carpet factories or in hotels in the city, but then they were sent to the sex industry across the border in India. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) reports, that in almost all countries the sex industry is the predominant form of child exploitation. This practice results in systematic, long-term physical and emotional abuse. girls from rural Nepal were recruited to work in carpet factories or in hotels in the city, but then they were sent to the sex industry across the border in India. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) reports that the sex industry is the predominant form of child exploitation in almost all countries. This practice results in systematic, long-term physical and emotional abuse. girls from rural Nepal were recruited to work in carpet factories or in hotels in the city, but then they were sent to the sex industry across the border in India. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) reports that the sex industry is the predominant form of child exploitation in almost all countries. This practice results in systematic, long-term physical and emotional abuse. girls from rural Nepal were recruited to work in carpet factories or in hotels in the city, but then they were sent to the sex industry across the border in India. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) reports that the sex industry is the predominant form of child exploitation in almost all countries. This practice results in systematic, long-term physical and emotional abuse.

Trafficking in persons does not exist in a vacuum, and government corruption is at the core of many trafficking operations.Council of Europe data show that corruption is one of the most important cost drivers for traffickers. Without corrupt law enforcement agencies, border guards, police, consular offices, diplomats, lawyers, trade could not exist. These and other officials, such as airport and railroad personnel or border agents, turn a blind eye, often after paying a large sum, and allow traffickers to continue and trafficking networks to flourish. Human Rights Watch found evidence that Bosnian officials facilitated human trafficking by creating or ignoring false documents produced by traffickers to facilitate crossing the country.through working bars in which victims of human trafficking were forced to work as prostitutes. Corruption can be either active (for example, actively assisting traffickers in obtaining travel documents) or passive (not responding to illegal actions).Research on corruption and human trafficking in Southeast Europe suggests that organized trade requires systematic corruption, leads to corrupt relationships and networks, and corruption at high levels. Bribes do not remain with lower-ranking officials, they are taken, but rise up the chain. The Albanian prime minister accused the judiciary and government of widespread corruption, which has exacerbated the problem of human trafficking in the country. A UN study in Malaysia on the trafficking of Filipinos to that country also found corruption at various levels.Senior police officers, who were with the syndicates, were regularly provided with financial payments and free access to drinks, as well as sexual services for women (victims of trafficking) in entertainment centers. Lower-ranking law enforcement officials who were not a party to these agreements tried to get their share by directly extorting women themselves, using harassment with the threat of arrest and detention.

Traffickers are often good entrepreneurs and adapt to laws and regulations in destination countries. They are familiar with the laws and use these laws to maximize the number of victims that can be brought into the country, while at the same time reducing the chances of their detention by law enforcement officers.Over a two-year period, Nigerian traffickers brought over 140 Nigerian minors to the Netherlands under false pretenses, and the minors sought asylum upon entering the Netherlands. Traffickers provided young women with fake passports and instructions on how to apply for asylum after landing at Schiphol Airport.According to Dutch law, refugee asylum seekers cannot be prisoners; they are viewed as victims rather than perpetrators. Only few trafficking operations are disclosed, and after the perpetrators have been detained, it is difficult to get victims to testify against their traffickers. Even when traffickers are arrested, it is a technical and time-consuming task to sanction the criminal proceeds of these organizations. Much of the money has been laundered or invested in legitimate businesses. Recruiting through the Internet has created new means for obtaining victims of human trafficking. Instead of using dating agencies, marriage agencies or employment, traffickers place free advertisements on the Internet.

In the context of analyzing the role of organizational-criminal syndicates in human trafficking, the following models can be distinguished according to which this criminal sphere of economic relations functions. The “natural resources” model is exclusively involved in the trafficking of women. This model is usually inherent in criminal structures in the post-Soviet space. Instead of functioning as an integrated business, criminals focus on short-term profits rather than long-term business. The emphasis is not on maximizing profits. Women are sold as a commodity - almost as an available natural resource (for example, timber). The business focuses on recruiting women who are then trafficked into prostitution to intermediaries who bring them to markets to "serve clients." Women are often sold to allied trade partners, (usually the closest criminal group). The income received is not repatriated or used for development, but, as a rule, is disposed of through conspicuous consumption or sometimes used to purchase other goods with a rapid turnover. For example, British law enforcement found that profits from trafficking in women were used to buy cars for sale in the Baltics or rubber boots for sale in Ukraine. The trade and development model is designed to maximize, long-term profit and act as a structured business that is integrated end-to-end, controlling the process from hiring to transportation and operation. Chinese and Sino-Thai human trafficking is most applicable to the transport of men; however, the seized ship logs show that up to 10 percent of trafficking involves women who may be forced to work in brothels. China's smuggling and human trafficking operations depend on the destination of the country where the people are brought in. The vast majority go to the United States, and after paying huge debts, citizens are free to travel. However, Italian prosecutors report that individuals remain enslaved in that country because they cannot pay off their debt. A “supermarket” model based on large-scale supply and demand, aimed at maximizing profits by moving large numbers of people. For this, the price of the trip must be low. Mexican-American smugglers can only charge a few hundred dollars per trip to entice large numbers of people to use their services. In most cases, the smuggler releases illegal migrants after having (safely) smuggled them across the US-Mexico border - sometimes with fatalities. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across the border at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across the border at low cost. that the debt can be easily repaid, and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. that the debt can be easily repaid, and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across the border at low cost. and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation gives the impression that the debt can be easily returned and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation gives the impression that the debt can be easily returned and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost. While this low-cost, high-volume model is most applicable to the transport of illegal migrants, it also applies to human trafficking. The low cost of transportation creates the impression that the debt can be easily repaid and increases the number of willing participants. Women can be transported across the border using the same transport, and men. Trafficking in women is part of a much larger trade, which involves moving large numbers of people across borders at low cost.This trade may take multiple attempts, as 1.8 million people were arrested at the border in 2000. Cases were reported of Mexican traffickers forcing a group of deaf people to trade in goods, and in the Caden case, young Mexican girls were forced into prostitution. Because of the low cost, smugglers and traffickers do not necessarily have a vested interest in the safe transport of their passengers, often leading to human rights violations, inhuman practices and fatalities at border crossings. Corruption of local border officials facilitates smuggling and human trafficking operations.In the Cadena case of young women trafficked to the southeastern United States, millions of dollars in profits were invested in land and farms in Mexico. The violent entrepreneur model is opportunistic and highly profitable. Balkan crime groups that traffick in women, run integrated businesses and act as intermediaries for groups from Eastern Europe. Criminal groups in the former Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union sell women to Balkan traffickers, who force them into prostitution in destination countries, mainly in Western Europe. These groups control the "commodity" from their base in the Balkans by exploiting them in Western European brothels and salons. Violence and strength is the main and integral aspect of this model. Balkan criminals have been implicated in significant human rights violations and high levels of violence against trafficked women. Women experience severe physical abuse at the hands of traffickers and are threatened with harm to family members at home. Violence is used against law enforcement officers who seek to investigate these crimes. Force is also being used by Balkan criminal groups against established criminal groups to conquer sex markets in the UK and continental Europe. Balkan criminal groups are known to maintain ties with senior law enforcement officials in their country, hindering a successful international investigation. Controlling many victims in the highly profitable Western European sex markets brings high profits.

Since the late 1990s, there has been a growing awareness of the trafficking of young women and girls from Nigeria and other West African countries for exploitation in the Western European sex industry. Combining traditional slavery with modern technology, Nigerian organized crime groups have become diverse criminal groups. Trafficking in women is just one of the many criminal activities that these criminal groups are involved in. In addition to a willingness to use physical violence against their victims, traffickers often use the practice of voodoo as a form of psychological violence to scare victims. Human rights violations are significant. Children (young women) are often transported to Western European countries and abandoned. Women who are forced to work in prostitution are forced into dangerous types of prostitution, such as street prostitution. The trade is reminiscent of traditional slavery that has been modernized to meet the needs and challenges of the world era. This activity brings significant financial benefits. Small profits from time to time are returned to family members of girls and women, while a significant part of the profits remains in criminal groups. Much of the profits are believed to be invested in other illegal activities and laundered. The trafficking pattern in West and Central Africa is similar. The trafficking rate of children in the two subregions is estimated to range from 200,000 to 300,000. The number of countries that report trafficking in children is double the number of countries that report trafficking in women. The countries of the region most affected by human trafficking are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'hôte. Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Togo. Internal human trafficking from rural areas to metropolitan areas occurs in almost all countries. The second main model of human trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as laborers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging. Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Togo. Internal human trafficking from rural areas to metropolitan areas occurs in almost all countries. The second main model of human trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as workers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging. Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Togo. Internal human trafficking from rural areas to metropolitan areas occurs in almost all countries. The second main model of human trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as workers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging. Nigeria and Togo. Internal human trafficking from rural areas to metropolitan areas occurs in almost all countries. The second main model of human trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as workers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging. Nigeria and Togo. Internal human trafficking from rural areas to metropolitan areas occurs in almost all countries. The second main model of human trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as workers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging. Internal human trafficking from rural areas to metropolitan areas occurs in almost all countries. The second main model of human trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as workers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging. Internal human trafficking from rural areas to metropolitan areas occurs in almost all countries. The second main model of human trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as laborers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging. The second main model of trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as laborers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging. The second main model of human trafficking involves cross-border flows of child exploitation into labor markets. Although this trade model is largely inwardly regional, children are sent far away to Europe, the United States and the Middle East. Male children are used primarily as workers on coffee or cocoa plantations, in mines or in the fishing industry, while female children are employed as market vendors or domestic workers. In countries where there are military conflicts, children are kidnapped by the military and forced to either fight on their side or provide sexual services to soldiers. Children are also forced into extortion and begging.

In the face of a pandemic, the situation has worsened. In light of the quarantines introduced in many countries around the world, traffickers are using digital technologies and other modern means to attract and exploit victims.Experience from previous health crises has shown that women in extreme conditions are at increased risk of violence - primarily by sexual partners, sexual exploitation and trafficking.

 

 

 

According to the US State Department's review regarding the assessment of human trafficking, Ukraine does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking, but it does so at a significant pace. The report characterizes Ukraine as "Country of origin, transit and destination for men, women and children who are subjected to forced labor and sexual exploitation". Ukrainians become victims of human trafficking not only in Ukraine, but also in Russia, Poland, other countries of Europe, Turkey, the United States, countries of Central Asia and the Middle East. Through Russian aggression, more than 1.3 million people from eastern Ukraine became internally displaced persons.These people are especially vulnerable to exploitation. Women and girls in the conflict zone are kidnapped in order to force them to work or provide sexual services. Russian separatist forces use minors as soldiers, informers or human shields, the report said.The main shortcomings and problems that prevent us from acting more effectively in the fight against human trafficking are indicated as follows: the courts were slow to consider cases and passed many suspended sentences, as a result of which the majority of convicted traffickers avoided imprisonment (American officials and analysts saw this as the influence of corruption schemes) moratorium labor inspectorate continued to stifle law enforcement investigations into human trafficking, the Ukrainian government showed fewer victims in 2019, however, as the report notes, international organizations continued to show many more victims, which indicates insufficient efforts by the authorities to identify manifestations of criminal activity and a constant lack of trust in the government's ability to protect victims. In the same time, the report also mentions positive examples of combating trafficking in human beings. In particular, the Canadian government has provided funding to international organizations to strengthen the ability of the Ukrainian government and Ukrainian society to identify and assist victims of trafficking. Law enforcement agencies investigated 297 cases of human trafficking in 2019, up from 275 in 2018. This included 135 cases of trafficking in labor, 112 for sex trafficking, 47 for forced participation in criminal activities and three for forced begging. Law enforcement has filed 233 reports of suspicion, involving 120 suspects in 2019, compared with 185 cases involving 133 suspects in 2018. Since 35, convicted in 2019, only 13 (37 percent) received a sentence of imprisonment, which ranged from two to 10 years. Human traffickersin Ukraine they work through employment services, marriage agencies and travel agenciesWhich are often legally registered. They hire women for various types of low-skilled labor. In addition, traffickers use former victims of trafficking or women members of organized crime groups as recruiters. They connect with friends, acquaintances and relatives in communities where they are known and trusted. Some of the women may have guesses that they will engage in prostitution before they leave Ukraine, but are unaware of the violence and exploitation that are the norm in sex slavery abroad. Most of them are recruited under a fake drive. In some cases, traffickers smuggle women across the border. But in most cases, get the necessary identity and travel documents from other criminals who produce fake documents, or cooperating with corrupt officials supplying these documents. In some cases, corrupt passport or border control personnel allow women to travel outside Ukraine with inappropriate documents. Traffickers buy tickets and pay for travel costs to destination countries. Later, these costs will be greatly inflated, and women will be forced into prostitution to pay off their debt. Organized crime groups may also have databases of potential victims of human trafficking from sources such as applications from women for beauty pageants or marriage agencies. Databases include photographs of women, their height, weight and personality traits. Traffickers in Ukraine receive between US $ 800 and US $ 2,000 per person, which they deliver to pimps abroad. The value of a “good” depends on its appearance and purpose: the higher the economic development of the destination country, the higher the price that will be paid for it. Traffickers also recruit teenage girls and children. In several cases, children were abducted and sold through illegal adoption. There have been several cases of parents selling their children to traffickers who resell them abroad. More often, traffickers are introduced to parents as representatives of foreign model schools for girls. Girls are invited to casting through ads, etc. In fact, these "agencies" are engaged in future recruitment for further transportation abroad. More often, traffickers are introduced to parents as representatives of foreign model schools for girls. Girls are invited to casting through ads, etc. In fact, these "agencies" are engaged in future recruitment for further transportation abroad. More often, traffickers are introduced to parents as representatives of foreign model schools for girls. Girls are invited to casting through ads, etc. In fact, these "agencies" are engaged in future recruitment for further transportation abroad.

Illegal vehicle market

A highly profitable illegal market today is the international market for stolen cars. Here, conditions have developed that are directly opposite to those that exist in the drug trade, that is, cars are stolen from developed industrial countries and supplied to the elite of developing countries or countries in transition. This problem is acutely practical today for all developed countries. On the territory of Hong Kong, cars of expensive brands are stolen and are quickly transported to China by extremely high-speed boats. In Europe, the number of car thefts almost tripled between 1989 and 1993. Over the past 5 years, about 2 million cars have been stolen here, and only half of them were later discovered and returned to their rightful owners. The US has a low arrest rate, the prosecution and conviction of car thieves turns this type of crime into a thriving business that generates large revenues with little risk. This problem is also serious in many African countries. With the beginning of political transformations, Eastern Europe became the main area where stolen cars were stolen. Poland is a central transit point for their illegal transportation. From Poland, cars are transported to the Baltic republics or Ukraine, to the Russian Federation, to the Caucasus region or Kazakhstan. Bulgarian and Russian criminal groups began to play a major role in this particular area of ​​transnational crime.

The EU-Moldova-Ukraine traffic (Odessa and Chernivtsi regions) is no less attractive for transnational groups. In recent years, there has been an unprecedented increase in the number of cars with registration numbers from the EU countries, Moldova and the PMR. Border regions have become a veritable "golden gate" for the smuggling of cars. The popularization and internationalization of the considered type of criminal activity of criminal groups is facilitated by a number of factors, among which are "transparency of borders" and insufficient control over the movement of vehicles, insignificant effectiveness of countering theft within one state, low level of interaction of competent authorities along the entire route, legal incompatibility in issues related to theft, search and return of transport,It should be noted that the statistics of stolen cars in Ukraine from year to year remains at a high level. In 2015, according to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, about 11,000 cars were stolen in the country. Often Ukraine becomes a market for stolen cars abroad. So, in 2017, Ukrainian and German law enforcement officers conducted a joint operation in the Chernivtsi region against the thieves of elite cars who stole cars in European countries and then legalized them in Ukraine. In 2015, on the territory of the capital of Ukraine, according to the police, 1957 cars were stolen, and 226 car thefts were uncovered. For 7 months of 2016, 1105 cars were stolen and 130 cases of car thefts were disclosed by law enforcement agencies.

Cybercrime

The term “cybercrime” is used to describe a wide range of offenses, including traditional computer crimes, as well as social media crimes. Since these crimes differ in many ways, there is no single criterion that can include all actions. Article 1.1 of the International Convention to Improve the Defense Against Cybercrime and Terrorism (CISAC), notes that cybercrime is the act of acting on cyber systems. However, the generally accepted definition describes cybercrime as any act in which computers, the Internet or social networks are the instrument, target or site of the criminal activity. The term "cybercrime" includes a wide variety of crimes.The Cybercrime Convention distinguishes four types of offenses:

  • confidentiality, integrity and availability crimes

computer data and systems;

  • computer crimes

  • content crimes;

  • property rights crimes.

It is difficult to measure the number of cybercrimes because victims may not always report crimes. However, various studies can help in understanding the impact of cybercrime. More importantly, the exact number of cybercrimes each year is a trend that can be determined by comparing the results over the past few years.

Currently, in connection with the pandemic, comprehensive social distancing measures are in place around the world. These measures have led to a significant increase in the use of online communications by governments, businesses and individuals. For many, working with online technology on this scale is a new challenge. Cybercriminals have improved criminal tools and techniques by taking advantage of the social, legal and psychological nuances of COVID-19. Cybercriminals are increasingly exploiting people's fear of the COVID19 virus to their advantage:put up for sale on the Internet counterfeit medicines, non-existent disinfectants, personal protective equipment, medical devices and hygiene products. Other types of scams include investment advice offers, including cryptocurrency, and false medical advice and diagnostics. One of the largest pornographic sites provided free subscriptions to users from one country, thereby increasing the risk of downloading malware and sexual extortion.Older citizens, often less aware of the dangers of the Internet, are targeted by cybercriminals, using them to download and forward malicious links via spam messages about COVID19, and to spread false information to friends and family. The darknet forums continue to sell compromised data, including high-ranking officials and celebrities.There have been cases of individual cybercriminals trying to dissuade other cybercriminals from DDOS attacks, as well as from malware attacks on hospitals and vaccine testing laboratories. Criminals also continue to share information on how best to identify police officers online.The success of most COVID19-related cybercrimes based on email phishing attacks as an initial vector of infection. As soon as a link is followed or a document is downloaded, the account becomes compromised. Account compromise can be visible to the victim, but more often it remains hidden and allows you to establish long-term access to the account, organization. In addition to collecting confidential information, ART attacks can disrupt websites, alter documents, delete data, and spread false information. False and inaccurate information about the virus continues to spread mainly through social media and encrypted messaging services.

December 7, 2020 McAfee has partnered with the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) to release a new global report, The Hidden Costs of Cybercrime, which focuses on the significant and other costs of cybercrime. The report says the global economy loses at least $ 1 trillion annually due to hackers, or just over 1% of global GDP., Which is more than 50% more than in 2018. The theft of intellectual property and monetary assets is harmful, but some of the most underestimated costs of cybercrime are associated with damage to company operations, including:

  • System downtime. The average cost of downtime for organizations in 2019 was $ 762,231.33% of respondents said IT security incidents leading to system downtime cost them anywhere from $ 100,000 to $ 500,000...

  • Decreased efficiency. Organizations lost an average of 9 working hours per week as a result of system downtime, resulting in reduced efficiency. The average break in activity is 18 hours.

  • Incident response costs. According to the report, most organizations took an average of 19 hours to go from detecting incidents to eliminating them. Many security incidents can be handled on their own, but serious cyberattacks often require external consultation and are costly for companies.

  • Damage to brand and reputation.

On January 27, 2020, Indonesian cyber police, together with Interpol and Group-IB, detained members of a criminal groupWho have infected hundreds of online stores in Australia, Brazil, Great Britain, Germany, Indonesia, USA and other countries of the world with a JavaScript sniffer - a popular type of malicious code. Among the victims are Russian and Ukrainian users. Criminals stole bank card details from customers and used them to buy gadgets and luxury goods. The elimination of this criminal group was the first successful operation against JS sniffer operators in the Asia-Pacific region (APAC).

In 2019, Ukrainian losses from the actions of cybercriminals amounted to UAH 25,500,000 (about $ 1 million), according to the Ukrainian Cyber ​​Police. In general, law enforcement agencies received 20,567 complaints from citizens related to theft and fraud in cyberspace. 701 hitscame from people who complained about cheating through payment systems. Among them:

  • theft (Article 185 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine) - 159 calls.

  • illegal actions with information processed in computers, automated systems, committed by a person who has access to it (Article 362 of the Criminal Code) - 362.

  • illegal actions to transfer, by payment cards and other means of access to bank accounts (Article 200 of the Criminal Code) - 180.

According to the above statistics, the amount of compensated losses initiated on grounds of fraud, which were made using information technologies, taking into account the imposed seizure or seized property,in 2019 reached UAH 12.5 million (concerning the cyber police - UAH 5.1 million).

Major transnational organized crime syndicates

Among the transnational criminal organizations in Europe, the Italian mafia syndicates stand out first of all, they have one of the most complex secret structures and are characterized by the classic principles of their own construction. It is worth noting that the current state of the balance of power of transnational criminal organizations in Europe has changed somewhat over the past decades. The Italian mafia is usually understood as four independent, highly organized criminal structures that closely cooperate with each other in connection with the needs of the control and coordination of the criminal business. These include the Sicilian mafia or "Cosa Nostra", the Neapolitan "Camorra", which consists mainly of local criminal organizations, the Calabrian "Ndrangheta", which consists of family clans and is involved in tobacco smuggling, complete devotion to the "don" (boss) blood feud for the attack on members of the "family"; prohibition of contact with law enforcement officials; support and assistance to allied criminal groups. The main sources of income are the control of prostitution and drug trafficking. The "Sicilian Mafia" was one of the first criminal groups to move away from the policy of direct confrontation in covert, latent criminal activity. Having emerged during the period of a weak state as a structure of self-defense and self-government, Cosa Nostra moved from the countryside to urban areas, and then to the transnational criminal business. The migration of Sicilians to the United States and Germany contributed to the formation of a Sicilian sphere of influence in the heroin markets in these countries. Sicilian mafia interests including drug trafficking, racketeering, capital investment control, corruption of trade unions, protectorate over legal business, financial and credit fraud, fictitious firms, illegal gambling, hunting for new technologies, computer crime. The Camorra is a criminal organization located in the province of Campania with its center in Naples. Its characteristic features are mobility, the ability to adapt to various changes and form new alliances. All this allows her to compete with the Sicilian mafia. The Camorra has 133 clans with a total of 7,400 members. Traditionally, the Camorra was present in South America, now it has influences in many countries of Western Europe. Camorra's criminal activities include drug trafficking (mainly cocaine) and weapons, gambling, exploitation of prostitution, extortion, fraud and violent crime. Ndranghetta is a criminal community with 160 criminal groups with about 6,000 members and operates in Calabria. Ndrangheta works regularly and effectively with all representatives of the Italian crime syndicate. She tries to control Western Europe, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, Canada and North America. Ndranghetta, in addition to drug trafficking, tobacco and arms smuggling, laundering of criminal proceeds, is engaged in illegal operations with monetary funds in the financial sector and abductions for ransom. It expands its activities in Turkey, the Americas, Canada, Australia, Germany and other European countries. Sacra Crown Unita (Sacred Crown) is a fairly new criminal group and includes about 50 clans with 1,800 members. It is located in the province of Puglia with its center in Bari. This organization maintains relations not only with the Italian criminals, but also with the criminal groups of Albania and the republics of the former Yugoslavia, together they control the so-called. Balkan Triangle ". Engaged in drug trafficking, weapons and explosives, smuggling, extortion, fraud, money laundering and illegal migration.

The Sicilian clans are more adapted to transnational activities, in addition, it is from Sicily that new branches of Cosa Nostra appear around the world. The largest branch that became an independent syndicate and which was the first to actually enter the world market was the American mafia or La Cosa Nostra. Founded by expatriates early in the last century, La Cosa Nostra is the largest transnational organized crime group throughout the United States and has ties to organized crime both within and outside the United States. "La Cosa Nostra" became known to the world community as a secret organization of national proportions, only after one of its members, J. Valachi in 1963. testified before the United States Senate Permanent Inquiry Subcommittee. Since 1981, the FBI in the United States has achieved convictions of members of the highest hierarchy - 20 families of "La Cosa Nostra" (23 Boss, 14 assistants, 5 advisers and 67 Saroz were convicted). It remains strong enough to control criminal activity in many regions and cities in America. Today, La Cosa Nostra continues to be particularly influential in New York, Chicago, New England, South Florida, Las Vegas, Nevada, Atlantic City and New Jersey. According to the Presidential Commission, there are twenty-four such groups - with a total of 1,700 members. Half of them are five New York families. In general, American organized crime, as a rule, is an assimilated ethnic criminal group of separate links of the world's most famous transnational criminal organizations:

Colombian drug cartels- is the center of drug trafficking in the Caribbean and in the north of South America. They are based in Colombia and are exclusively involved in drug trafficking. For a long time, the main market for drugs was the United States, and then Western Europe. In the 1990s, there was a tendency to expand sales markets at the expense of Eastern Europe and the CIS countries. By the mid-90s. the leaders of the drug trade were the Medellinsky (the largest supplier of cocaine in the world) and the Kali cartels from Colombia. The Medellin cartel was founded by the families of P. Escobar and Ochao, and the Kali cartel was founded by the Santacruz and R. Orihuella families. In the 1980s, Carlos Leder and other members of the Medellin cartel pioneered the use of the industrial route of drug trafficking in the drug business, increasing the volume of drugs transported to the United States by air. The Kali cartel went further and adopted the most effective business management practices and strict accounting procedures in its activities. In 1995-1997 the leaders of these organizations were arrested, somewhat weakened the positions of the main cartels and led to the emergence of new cartels, as well as independent drug trafficking groups in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. Colombian cartels continue today to control the world drug trafficking (up to 80%), the raw materials for which grows only in three South American countries: Bolivia, Peru (70%) and Colombia (30%). The Medellin and Potassium cartels dominate the global drug market, producing 715 tons of cocaine a year. So, according to Interpol, 62.8% of the cocaine seized in Europe in the 1990s, of little Colombian origin. Bolivia, Peru and Colombia alone receive roughly $ 2 billion from drug sales. smuggled and supply drugs to Central America, Mexico, the United States, the Bahamas and Turkey. In addition, extortion, money laundering and the murder of objectionable judges, law enforcement officers and informants are traditional for them. The Colombian cartels are unique criminal organizations capable of waging hostilities with government forces, but abandoning the tactics of confronting the government and law enforcement forces, the Kali cartel has adopted a strategy of peaceful application to society. Cartel leaders are acting as legitimate entrepreneurs and are increasingly investing in legitimate businesses. Besides, the election of these individuals to the local security forces, as well as the patronage they have on the ground, serve as a powerful cover for them in Cali. The Kali cartel conducts its criminal activities in the USA, Mexico, Harbors, Panama, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Italy, Jamaica, Spain, Canada, etc. for possession of cocaine is used by Guatemala.The Colombian cartels were prominent trading dynasties, most of which had a patriarchal authoritarian structure that required absolute discipline and loyalty. Traditional Colombian cartels have a mix of strong corporate and networking principles. Obtaining superprofits as a result of carrying out only one type of criminal activity confirms its effectiveness. The main governing levels of cartels are structured according to a rigid hierarchical structure using vertical corporate principles. Since 1995, two new cartels, Cartel de la Costa and Norten Valle del Cauca, have appeared on the traditionally Colombian cocaine market, which, unlike traditional cartels, rely on mobile small aggressive groups,

Another rather powerful group of criminal syndicates, mainly involved in drug trafficking, smuggling and the market for illegal migration, is the Mexican syndicates. The Mexican federation is represented by 4 leading cartels: Galfa, Tijuana, Sonora, Juarez, which control the production, smuggling and trade of drugs (heroin, cocaine, marijuana), and are also involved in money laundering. Their sphere of influence is Mexico, the western United States. These cartels also mediate, transporting cocaine from Colombia to the United States. A fifth cartel, the Amescua organization, dominates the methamphetamine and ephedrine trade. The effective criminal activity of the Mexican cartels is due to the high level of corruption among judges, law enforcement agencies, the army and customs. Up to 40% of cocaine passes through Mexico, comes from Colombia. This country has become the main exporter for the supply of heroin (black and brown), provides transit through the developed system of transportation of cocaine. Mexican criminal groups control most of the cocaine traffic passing through Mexico. Mexican organized crime is considered to be the most experienced and classified. The construction of Mexican cartels is in many ways similar to the Colombian drug cartels. The vast majority of these organizations operate in the drug business with families, many of whom have been involved in smuggling operations for generations. Mexican organized crime is considered to be the most experienced and classified. The construction of Mexican cartels is in many ways similar to the Colombian drug cartels. The vast majority of these organizations work in the drug business with families, many of whom have been involved in smuggling operations for generations. Mexican organized crime is considered to be the most experienced and classified. The construction of Mexican cartels is in many ways similar to the Colombian drug cartels. The vast majority of these organizations operate in the drug business with families, many of whom have been involved in smuggling operations for generations.

Among the ethnic organized crime syndicates, the most pronounced are Chinese and Japanese criminal organizations. The Chinese "triads", whose name comes from the Chinese character, which has the shape of a triangle, are among the oldest criminal organizations on the planet. The history of their development goes back thousands of years. The word "triad" is borrowed from the sacred symbol of Chinese society, translated as a triangle, contains three main elements that make up one whole: heaven, earth, man. The predecessors of the triads are considered to be the emergence in the XIV century. secret societies of monks repressed by the emperor. Subsequently, these societies developed a high conspiracy of behavior as the main form of protection from external influences, and the main goal was the destabilization of power. According to the Hong Kong Royal Police, in Hong Kong, there are about 160,000 members of the Triads, which are part of 50-55 separate organizations, in Taiwan there are more than 700 clan structures, united in 6 main syndicates with a number of about 100,000 members. According to experts, now there are about 50 triads in the world, the number of which, according to various estimates, ranges from 160 to 300,000 people. The Triad is the largest criminal association in the world. Over time, the establishment of capitalist foundations in China and the annexation of Hong Kong greatly strengthened the position of the triads. Since 1986, there has been a high growth in the number of close-knit, highly organized formations of the underground type. They are very influential in China, Southeast Asia, on the west and northeast coast of the United States, have an extensive system in Western Europe, in the Chinese communities of North America, in the Far East of Russia. The main areas of activity are diverse. Chinese triads control the heroin trade, being major suppliers of heroin to the United States and Western Europe, prostitution and illegal gambling, extortion, financial fraud and money laundering, illegal migration, sale into slavery, smuggling weapons, cars, alcohol, currency and electronic equipment , extortion of money for security, real estate transactions, and also carry out contract killings. Triads play a dominant role in the import of heroin into the United States and a number of other countries. financial fraud and money laundering, illegal migration, sale into slavery, smuggle weapons, cars, alcohol, currency and electronic equipment, extortion of money for security, real estate transactions, and also carry out contract killings. Triads play a dominant role in the import of heroin into the United States and a number of other countries. financial fraud and money laundering, illegal migration, sale into slavery, smuggle weapons, cars, alcohol, currency and electronic equipment, extortion of money for security, real estate transactions, and also carry out contract killings. Triads play a dominant role in the import of heroin into the United States and a number of other countries.Thanks to their efforts to develop appropriate market infrastructure, world opium production has nearly tripled since 1995, mainly in the so-called Golden Triangle and the Golden Cross of Southwest Asia. The smuggling of illegal Chinese migrants to the developed world, especially the United States, is also a lucrative business for Chinese transnational organized crime. This type of criminal activity brings Chinese criminal organizations approximately 3.5 billion dollars per year. With the PRC, Hong Kong and Taiwan mafia groups annually smuggle more than 200 thousand illegal migrants.Membership in the triads is mainly ethnic in nature, personnel selection is carried out on a family basis, admission to the ranks of the organization is accompanied by various rituals and ceremonies. Constant attention is paid to ensuring personal loyalty as the most important means of maintaining the strength of the criminal structure. The cult of veneration and traditional “gifting” of the elders in the hierarchy by ordinary members of the organization is invariably supported. Ethnic Chinese criminal organizations are very close-knit, do not allow outside intrusion. Analysts still cannot come to a consensus regarding the degree of organization of the triads. In the presence of a strictly formalized structure of the management level, the executive units carrying out direct criminal activities are part of a flexible network system, capable of changing its structure, adjusting to external conditions and depending on a particular criminal activity or operation being carried out. Membership in a triad means the expression of a certain degree of trust and its members form a single working team, designed to help other members, even if they are unfamiliar. Therefore, although the triads have a certain formal structure, a significant part of their criminal activity, as a rule, is carried out by those members who are involved on a case-by-case basis within a flexible network system. even if unfamiliar. Therefore, although the triads have a certain formal structure, a significant part of their criminal activity, as a rule, is carried out by those members who are involved on a case-by-case basis within a flexible network system. even if unfamiliar. Therefore, although the triads have a certain formal structure, a significant part of their criminal activity, as a rule, is carried out by those members who are involved on a case-by-case basis within a flexible network system.

Japanese yakuza(Borokudan, borekudan) - the Japanese version of the mafia, one of the oldest criminal organizations in the world. The historical roots of the Yakuza go deep into the Middle Ages, 16-17 centuries, the period of internecine wars and disorder that dominated then in the Land of the Rising Sun, when groups of gamblers, street vendors and hooligans began to unite into a single structure. The word "yakuza" itself comes from a bad combination in the Japanese card game (8-9-2, which is pronounced "ya-ku-sa"). Boriokudan traditions date back to Japanese customs and traditions three hundred years ago, associated with the lifestyle of samurai (nobles), ancient Japanese warriors (ashigaru), quoguniv (princes), ninjas (scouts and spies), fishermen and pirates. The number of the Japanese mafia is about 60-100 thousand members. Thus, at the end of 1996, it had 79,900 members. The yakuzu includes several large, separate syndicates, similar to the Italian mafia: Yamaguchi-gumi, numbering 23,000 - more than 26,000 members in 400-944 groups; the second largest is Inagawa kai, which has 140 groups of 7000-8600 members in its ranks; it is followed by Sumieshi-kai, which unites 112 groups of 6000-7000 members. The total number of criminal groups officially registered as borekudan in 1998 was 23 communities. The Yakuza is characterized by a large-scale internecine struggle between its various groups, but there is also a concerted effort to corrupt government officials and criminalize the economy. In addition to interfering in internal economic processes, the Yakuza controls the film industry, the entertainment industry, professional sports, lotteries, financial and real estate, it smuggles seafood and stolen vehicles, drugs and weapons. The boriokudan group is stationed in Japan and is involved in drug smuggling into the Hawaiian Islands, California, where there are large Japanese communities, and the smuggling of weapons in Japan. In Southeast Asia, she is engaged in sex work, gambling, fraud, money laundering, drug and arms trafficking, and infiltrates the legal business. The yakuza control the territories of the west coast of the United States, Hawaii, South Korea, Australia, Brazil and Costa Rica. The Japanese mafia works closely with the Chinese triads and the Russian mafia. The main area of ​​criminal relations with Russia is the smuggling of seafood, the sale of stolen cars and prostitution. The most lucrative spheres of influence of the yakuza include drug trafficking (methamphetamine), extortion, credit fraud, gambling, prostitution, security activities and control of corporations and banks. According to Japanese law enforcement agencies, boriokudan's income is about 9.8 billion rubles. dollars, acquired mainly from illegal gambling businesses and from the drug trade in Japan.

Vietnamese mafia- 1975 is considered the active beginning of Vietnamese organized crime in the world, when Vietnamese immigration to various countries of the world began. Among those who fled Vietnam after 1975, there were many criminal elements who were engaged in extortion, drug trafficking, prostitution and illegal gambling. Settling in a particular country of the world, they choose the well-organized and wealthy Vietnamese of the first wave of emigration as victims of their crimes. The most famous gang called "Born to Kill", the scene of which is mainly in the northeastern part of the United States. These organizations are mainly transnational in nature, they are closely associated with ethnic diasporas of emigrants in European, Asian and American countries. For example, in the United States, Chinese groups are active called "Tonga" and are composed mainly of expatriates who were formerly members of the triads. In addition, mixed Sino-Vietnamese groups, as well as the Chinese criminal organization Green Dragons, are active. The US Presidential Commission has established a direct link between the triads based in Hong Kong and the Chinese organized criminals in New York.

The rise in organized crime in Nigeria is often associated with the fall in oil prices in the early 1980s and the resulting disorganization of the Nigerian economy, which in the late 1970s was 95 percent dependent on export earnings. As a result, many gifted, extraordinary Nigerians - many of whom have higher education and live in other countries - have been completely deprived of a source of income. Some of them took the path of criminal activity and achieved extraordinary success. Nigerian criminal organizations are involved in large-scale drug trafficking. Activities also include fraud and extortion, including credit card fraud and fraud associated with commercial banks and government aid programs. They do not intervene in large-scale operations and prefer smaller operations, carrying out many such operations and tend to, as a rule, remain in the shadows. The most well-known forms of fraud used by Nigerian criminal organizations are called "Nigerian letter" fraud. Members of these organizations tend to lead modest lives and send money back to Nigeria, where there is no anti-money laundering legislation. These organizations are usually based on family or tribal ties, which makes it very difficult for agents to integrate into such organizations. used by Nigerian criminal organizations are called "Nigerian letter" scams. Members of these organizations tend to lead modest lives and send money back to Nigeria, where there is no anti-money laundering legislation. These organizations are usually based on family or tribal ties, which makes it very difficult for agents to integrate into such organizations. used by Nigerian criminal organizations are called "Nigerian letter" scams. Members of these organizations tend to lead modest lives and send money back to Nigeria, where there is no anti-money laundering legislation. These organizations are usually based on family or tribal ties, which makes it very difficult for agents to integrate into such organizations.

After the collapse of the USSR, new participants appeared on the European arena, as a result of long-term confrontations for spheres and territories of influence, they took their important place in geoeconomic activity. Albanian Mafia - There are 15 clans in Albania that control most of the Albanian organized crime. They control drug trafficking, people and arms trafficking.Their activities are celebrated in almost every EU country (except Sweden and Finland). Their presence is especially noticeable in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, France and Belgium. The list of crimes committed by ethnic Albanian organized criminal groups is quite wide. First, human trafficking (mainly in Greece, Spain, Belgium and Italy): organizing brothels and forcing women to occupy prostitution; kidnapping and coercion of children to engage in begging; organization of illegal adoption; kidnapping of people for the purpose of exploiting their labor. Second, the organization of illegal migration: assistance to Turkish, Iraqi and Chinese organized crime groups in illegal migration in Greece and Italy; control over channels of illegal migration to the UK. Illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances: distribution of heroin in Austria, Denmark, Czech Republic, Italy and Greece; ensuring the safety of UK heroin transporters in cooperation with Turkish organized crime groups; transportation of cocaine from South America to Italy via Albania; distribution of cocaine in Belgium, France, Germany and Italy; production (in Albania) and transportation of marijuana to Greece and Italy; control over the channels for the supply of marijuana to the territory European Union in cooperation with Greek organized crime in groups. Serbian Mafia - Various criminal groups based in Serbia and Montenegro, composed of ethnic Serbs and Montenegrins. Their activities are very diverse: drug trafficking, smuggling, contract killings, gambling and information trading. Today in Serbia there are about 30-40 such active criminal groups. These transnational crime syndicates control the so-called. The "Balkan Triangle" is the territory of the former Yugoslavia and Bulgaria along which Shikov's flows and routes of drug trafficking, human trafficking and illegal migration go.One of the brightest representatives can be considered the Serbian international syndicate "America", which for the period 1995-2018 transported tens of millions of kg of narcotic substances from Serbia to the USA and vice versa.and distributed them through legal establishments - nightclubs, gambling establishments, etc. The center of the criminal group was in Zlatibor.

A significant danger is the criminal organizations of Turkey - "the heroes of the new laboratory", which supply 75% of drugs, in particular heroin, to the countries of Western Europe along the so-called "Balkan corridor", which comprises the territories of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, Austria.The American secret service for the fight against drug addiction claims that from Turkey through the Balkans to Europe and somewhat less to the United States comes from four to six metric tons of heroin.In addition, these organizations are involved in human trafficking and prostitution. They mainly operate in Western Europe, in particular Germany and Holland.

Organized criminal groups of Bulgarian origin operate on the territory of many EU member states except Scandinavian ones. The characteristic features of these groups are the presence of complex hierarchical structures, mobility, and a wide area of ​​interest. In particular, groups of Bulgarian origin specialize in the commission of such crimes as: trafficking in persons (women for the purpose of their sexual exploitation) - in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands and Spain; counterfeiting banknotes, payment cards, bills of exchange, travel documents, visas, identification documents: theft of vehicles - mainly in Spain; production and supply of precursors to the EU - as raw materials for the production of synthetic drugs.

The classic emergence of transnational organized crime in Russia falls on the late 80s and early 90s. Liberalization of foreign economic activity, the destruction of the common economic space of the USSR, the absence of effectively guarded borders, the weakening of the state and its institutions and separatist tendencies in Russia, political instability, exacerbation of interethnic conflicts, and corruption contributed to the flourishing of Russian organized crime. During the spontaneous transition to the market, criminal organizations used transnational opportunities to smuggle oil products, gold, metals, raw materials, weapons, currency, antiques and works of art to other countries, and to smuggle and duty-free import of goods to Russia.In the West, the term "Russian mafia" can mean any criminal organization, both Russian proper and from other states of the post-Soviet space, or immigration environment in the far abroad.In this regard, the law enforcement agencies of the EU states have certain problems of classifying such criminal groups according to ethnicity. That is, criminal groups from the CIS countries are not always correctly identified by the law enforcement agencies of the European Union by origin - most of the groups fall under the concept of "Russian organized crime". Among the specific signs that their representatives are stuffing hierarchical tattoos, they often use military tactics and carry out contract killings. In the CIS countries, the mafia is represented by oligarchs, shady business dealers, thieves in law and professional criminals. According to the FBI, 40% of private business, 60% of state enterprises, 50-85% of banks are under the control of the Russian mafia. In the United States, the Russian mafia operates in most states. Russian organized crime has forged a close alliance with the Italian crime syndicate and the Colombian cartels. The main activities of the Russian mafia are: drug and human trafficking, arms smuggling (including nuclear weapons), car theft, financial fraud, money laundering and illegal export of raw materials. Russian crime is involved in racketeering and smuggling in the Baltic countries, the transit of alcohol and tobacco products to the CIS countries, the supply of oil products, flowers, art objects and rare metals from the CIS to the West, and the sale of stolen cars. The specificity of the Russian mafia lies in total brutality, inexhaustible financial and human resources, a dynamic structure, the absence of a centralized leadership, lack of prohibition of violence against law enforcement officers and public figures. The Russian mafia demonstrates a complex model of structure, the features of which are just beginning to emerge through short-term transnational criminal activity. Scientists believe that the scale of its transnational activities is somewhat exaggerated, since the legislative, political and economic situation in the CIS countries creates favorable conditions for carrying out criminal activities and making profit within national borders with their relative security. Entering the transnational level is caused by the need to legalize huge profits, store them and securely invest in the economy, as well as the significant difference between world and domestic prices for raw materials, goods and services. The Russian mafia demonstrates a complex model of structure, the features of which are just beginning to emerge through short-term transnational criminal activity. Scientists believe that the scale of its transnational activities is somewhat exaggerated, since the legislative, political and economic situation in the CIS countries creates favorable conditions for carrying out criminal activities and making profit within national borders with their relative security. Entering the transnational level is caused by the need to legalize huge profits, store them and securely invest in the economy, as well as the significant difference between world and domestic prices for raw materials, goods and services. The Russian mafia demonstrates a complex model of structure, the features of which are just beginning to emerge through short-term transnational criminal activity. Scientists believe that the scale of its transnational activities is somewhat exaggerated, since the legislative, political and economic situation in the CIS countries creates favorable conditions for carrying out criminal activities and making profit within national borders with their relative security. Entering the transnational level is caused by the need to legalize huge profits, store them and securely invest in the economy, as well as the significant difference between world and domestic prices for raw materials, goods and services. Scientists believe that the scale of its transnational activities is somewhat exaggerated, since the legislative, political and economic situation in the CIS countries creates favorable conditions for carrying out criminal activities and making profit within national borders with their relative security. Entering the transnational level is caused by the need to legalize huge profits, store them and securely invest in the economy, as well as the significant difference between world and domestic prices for raw materials, goods and services.

According to VA Yatsenko, the penetration of Russian criminals into the territory of other states is facilitated by three factors: Russian criminal organizations are viewed as relatively young criminal organizations; they are characterized by a rapid increase in their potential, penetration into new areas of activity with the rapid establishment of contacts and connections; Russian organized crime is not endowed with a specific system of organization, it manifests itself in various forms from small groups to corporations.A considerable danger is also seen in the participation of Russian organized crime in money laundering operations. Often, for this purpose, joint actions of various transnational criminal organizations are planned.For example, Russian law enforcement agencies have information that the Tambov "thief in law" A. Zagorodnikov (known as Khryak), back in 1991, with the help of the mediation of the well-known leader of an organized criminal group "athletes", met with the emissary of the Japanese yakuza A. Inuk for developing joint activitieson laundering of criminal proceeds in the former republics of the USSR and especially in the Far East region. At the same time, an agreement was reached between them on the exchange of perpetrators of crimes between Russia and Japan.According to the official data of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, more than 500 Russian organized criminal groups maintained international contacts in countries of the far and near abroad - the USA, Italy, Germany, Finland, Sweden, China, Poland, Hungary, etc.

The International Organization "Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime" released the report "Crime and Infection. Impact of a Pandemic on Organized Crime". It is noted that the measures taken in the world against the spread of COVID-19 have limited the freedom of action of organized crime and at the same time opened up new opportunities for it for enrichment.Widespread border closures quickly stopped or slowed down a number of criminal activities. On the other hand, criminal organizations have taken advantage of the confusion and fragility of the situation and capitalize on the renewed demand for illegal goods and services. Crime will continue to exploit new opportunities, especially in those countries where it has long entered the health sector. The authors of the report name four types of consequences that the pandemic has had on organized crime. A number of types of criminal business have suffered due to social distancing and restrictions on freedom of movement and will not recover immediately. Some criminal organizations took advantage of the fact that the attention of law enforcement agencies and political authorities shifted to other problems, and intensified their activities. OCG, entered the healthcare sector again, new opportunities have emerged for the exploitation of this sector. Cybercrime is rapidly accelerating, taking advantage of the fact that the mass of people are homebound and spend much more time on the Internet. The decline in exports from China had an impact on RAM revenues. China is the leading source of counterfeit and illegal goods in the world, and as a result of the shutdown of Chinese factories, foreign organized crime groups were left without their main supplier. Mexican cartels producing methamphetamine and fentanyl for the lucrative American market have lost the original ingredients that came from the PRC. Although illegal goods of Chinese origin were the first victims of the quarantines, in the future it could affect trade flows around the world, the report said. Partial border closures in Europe, which is a major market for illegal goods, has led to the fact that imports enter it through a limited number of border points and is under close surveillance, rather than a pandemic. In particular, the new situation affected European traders in human goods.... However, the report warns that they are likely to try to cash in on the desperate plight of migrants, who are now stuck halfway to their destination, and will raise the price of crossing the border.Quarantines and other restrictions have cut off the routes of international drug trafficking. In East and South Africa, street prices for heroin are rising and the quality is declining. In addition, one of the main markets for its retail sales is the street, which is now depopulated. According to the authors of the report, this could lead to the transfer of the retail drug trade to the Internet, although there is no information about such a transfer so far.

In Albania, the cannabis planting season falls in March and April and is likely to be more active than usual as the police are focused on fighting quarantine violators. The authors of the report write that a rich harvest should be expected in the summer. Border crossings in Colombia, the world's top cocaine producer, have been closed, but a number of observers warn that this could reinforce criminal groups that control hundreds of trails across the border and are used to smuggle migrants, drugs, illicit gold and other illicit goods.... Also, fraudulent spheres in the network have become more active and illegal trading operations in the virtual space have become more frequent.

There are four main types of criminal corporations in the Ukrainian economic system.

  • Criminal corporate organizations that build their strategy of generating income, focusing exclusively on assisting them with corrupt officials and using government levers and budgetary resources in one form or another for their own purposes.

  • Corporate organizations specializing in the manipulation of oil, gas and energy resource flows. Due to the repeatability of financial and economic operations, criminal technologies are thoroughly debugged, and the main criminal mechanism for “pumping out” income, as a rule, is hidden abroad.

  • Criminal corporations seeking to obtain the status of "system-forming" for the regions or even on a national scale. This can only be done by large corporate structures, as a rule, organized on the basis of the former largest state associations.

  • Corporate structures serving the interests of purely criminal organized criminal groups exist to launder the proceeds of criminal activity: theft of cars, the production of fake vodka, drugs, and the like.

Ukraine is no exception among the states that affect the activities of transnational criminal organizations. On the territory of our state, the activities of criminal organizations of other countries are manifested, instead of Ukrainian criminal organizations spread their activities abroad, and its results are detrimental to the interests of Ukraine.The spread of the activities of transnational criminal organizations on the territory of Ukraine falls on the early 1990s.The territorial location of Ukraine makes it a "gateway" to European countries, and therefore it is attractive for organized crime and, in particular, as a transit state. The political situation in the country, the change of government and development directions, combined with negative processes in the social sphere and long-term economic instability have led to the active use of the territory of the state by criminal structures, in particular, transnational criminal organizations.So, according to law enforcement agencies, the range of routes for the export of women from Ukraine is quite wide, but the main intermediate transport points from which they go further abroad are Lviv and Odessa.For a long time, one of the most common transportation routes was the border with Poland. On the territory of Poland "live goods" were transferred to "customers" for an agreed payment. The end point of such routes is Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Greece, Poland, Hungary, Israel, Spain, the Netherlands, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia, Cyprus, etc. Another serious problem for Ukraine is its use in the supply of heroin, the smuggling of synthetic drugs and precursors. The main ways of supplying cocaine and heroin from Colombia to North America and Europe, from Southeast Asia to the markets of North America and Australia, from Pakistan to Europe are sea transportation, drug couriers and local criminal structures are used.Combined with illegal migration, the Nigerian, Afghan, Pakistani, Iranian and some other ethnic communities living in Ukraine have actually turned into hotbeds of drug trafficking, gradually attracting them to the international drug business. American analytical magazine Jane's Intelligence Review in its article "The Ukrainian mafia is entering the international criminal arena," according to the Washington ProFile agency, notes: together with Russian criminals) and Crimea. Outside the state, the Ukrainian mafia operates in countries such as Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkmenistan, USA and Uzbekistan ".

According to the results of a study of the Ukrainian economy what Ernst & Young carried out, UAH 846 billion, or 23.8% of the official GDP for 2018, is in the shadow, of which: 19.7% of GDP (UAH 702 billion) is the cash shadow economy, 4.1% of GDP (144 billion UAH) - home production of goods for own final use, that is, a non-monetary shadow economy. Ernst & Young conducted similar studies in 33 countries of the world, including the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbiaand other countries. Historically, the level of the shadow economy among these countries ranged from 10.1% to 26.9% of GDP. Research in Ukraine shows that more than a quarter (26.2%) of the "cash shadow economy" (this is 5.3% of GDP or UAH 190 billion) is the "investigative shadow economy", where both parties are initiators of the cash settlement - and the seller and the buyer. And the rest (73.8%) of the total volume of the Ukrainian shadow economy (or 14.4% of GDP - UAH 512 billion) is a "passive shadow economy" initiated by the seller. However, the level of the shadow economy in 2019 is alreadyaccounted for 28% of the volume official GDP of Ukraine.

Summing up, we can draw the following conclusions. Transnational crime is one of the forms of crime; negative, massively, historically changing socio-legal phenomenon, consisting of a set of crimes committed over a certain period, damaging two or more states or the interests of legal entities or individuals of two or more states, responsibility for which is provided for in the norms of national criminal legislation, as well as persons who committed them. The main factors that led to the strengthening of the TS are as follows:

  • Increased mobility and transparency of borders facilitate criminal movement, while migratory movements of populations and existing diasporas have created ethnic networks that are linked to ethnic criminal organizations.

  • The growth of international trade has provided new opportunities for the issuance of illegal goods for legitimate ones, complicating the work of law enforcement agencies.

  • The growth of the global financial system has provided new opportunities for money laundering. The emergence of global cities has created opportunities for criminal contacts and "criminal cosmopolitanism."

  • The emergence of national and global information infrastructures gave criminal groups the opportunity to move to computer crimes

 

One of the main activities of organized criminal groups and one of the main sources of income for most transnational criminal organizations is drug trafficking. According to rough estimates, today around the world more than 200 million people use drugs of various kinds, including about 140 million - marijuana, 13 million - cocaine, 8 million - heroin, 30 million. People abuse amphetamine-type stimulants ... The turnover of the world drug industry is estimated by UN experts at about 400-500 billion dollars per year, due to the outstripping growth in demand over supply and the rise in prices from production, processing and transportation to marketing and legalization of illegal income. The place and role of each country in the transnational drug business depends on its geostrategic position, natural and climatic conditions, civilizational features, transparency of borders, suitability of its infrastructure for drug production, the attitude of the ruling elites to the drug threat, and many other circumstances. A large number of countries are used for the transit of drugs from major producers to consumers in the West. In other states, drug dollars are laundered or drug raw materials are processed to obtain "pure" drugs with a high content of alkaloids. The producers of cocaine are the countries of the "Andean group": Colombia (it accounts for 2/3 of the world production of coca leaves, according to UN estimates), Bolivia and Peru. 98% of the world's coca production is concentrated here. Most of the Peruvian and Bolivian raw materials are processed in Colombia, and cocaine comes to foreign markets from this country. Cocaine production is growing in Brazil. Relatively small amount of cocaine produced in Ecuador, Venezuela, Argentina. Most of this drug leaves the Andean countries through the Caribbean or South American countries - Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela and Paraguay. Heroin is usually transported from Afghanistan or the states of Southeast Asia (the so-called "Golden Crescent") through the Balkan and African routes and in transit through the states of the Central Asian region to Russia and the EU. Over the last week of December 2020, according to the National Police, the police blocked two international drug supply channels in Ukraine, stopped the activities of three powerful drug laboratories and liquidated more than 100 online stores, through which about 50,000 doses of drugs were sold every day throughout Ukraine. The cost of drugs seized during searches,

Illegal migration is one of the main and significant threats, which for many years has remained a problem not only for Ukraine, but also for the EU countries. In recent years, attempts by migrants to illegally cross the border have significantly decreased: in 2015 - 1807 people, 2016 - 1040 people, 2017 - 886 people). For 9 months of 2019 (as of September 30), 2,060 illegal migrants were detained in Ukraine, 830 of them for an attempt to illegally cross the border, more than a thousand for violation of the rules of stay.

Transnational human trafficking is based on the supply and demand of suppliers and host countries. Countries with developed sex industries create demand and are host countries, while countries where traffickers can easily recruit women are supplying countries. It is extremely difficult to estimate with the necessary accuracy the number of women trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. This is due to the secret nature of the trade, the coercion of women into silence, and the high risk of obtaining information. The UN estimates the global trafficking in women as a commodity for the sex industry at between $ 7 and $ 12 billion per year.

The largest transnational organized crime syndicates are the Italian mafia, Chinese "triads", Japanese "yakuza", Colombian cartels, Nigerian criminal organizations, Russian transnational organized crime. Among transnational criminal organizations, the Sicilian and Italian mafias stand out for their complex structure. With regard to Italy, the word "mafia" is usually understood as the Sicilian mafia or "Cosa Nostra", the Neapolitan "Camorra", consisting mainly of local criminal organizations, the Calabrian "Ndrangheta", which consists of family clans and is involved in the smuggling of tobacco, drugs and kidnapping, and also the "Sacra crown of unita" from Puglia, created by "Cosa Nostroy" for the use of the sea coast of this region for the purpose of drug trafficking. Ethnic Chinese criminal organizations are very close-knit, do not allow outside intrusion. They are based in China itself, Hong Kong, Taiwan and other places in Southeast Asia. "Triads" have a ramified system in Western Europe, in the Chinese communities of North America, in the Russian Far East. According to some estimates, there are about 160,000 "triad" members in Hong Kong, belonging to 50 different organizations. Practitioners and analysts still cannot agree on the degree of organization of the "triads". The Triads are involved in many types of criminal activities, including extortion, prostitution, gambling, drug trafficking, being major suppliers of heroin to the United States and Western Europe. The Japanese "yakuza" is one of the most widespread Japanese criminal organizations. The yakuzu includes several large organizations, among which the leader is the Yamaguchi-gumi, with more than 26,000 members in 944 smaller gangs. The second largest is Inagawa Kai, with over 8,600 members, followed by Sumieshi-Kai, with over 7,000 members. The Yakuza is characterized by a large-scale internecine struggle between its various groups, but this does not prevent it from penetrating into the sphere of legal business and engaging in corruption within the political system. The boriokudan group is deployed in Japan and is engaged in drug smuggling into the Hawaiian Islands, to California, home to large Japanese communities, and arms smuggling into Japan. Yakuza are present in almost many countries. In Southeast Asia, she is engaged in sex work, gambling, fraud, money laundering. The Colombian cartels are criminal organizations capable of fighting government forces. They are exclusively involved in drug trafficking, based in Colombia and expanding their activities to the United States, and in recent years to Western and Eastern Europe; Russia, Ukraine and other states formed on the territory of the former USSR. The Medellin and Kali cartels became widely known. The structure of the cartels has a highly specialized cellular structure. Each cell performs its own limited function: drug development, marketing, intelligence, security, etc. E This helps the cartel to survive even in the face of the introduction of agents into one of the cells and bringing its members to criminal responsibility. The business they organize is based on such effective management principles as specialization and division of labor. In the 1980s, Carlos Leder and other members of the Medellin cartel pioneered the use of the industrial route of drug trafficking in the drug business, increasing the volume of drugs transported to the United States by air. The Kali cartel went further and began to apply the most effective methods of managing commercial enterprises and strict accounting procedures in its activities. Having abandoned the tactics of confronting the government and the forces of law enforcement, the cartel adopted a strategy of peaceful application to society. Cartel leaders are acting as legitimate entrepreneurs and are increasingly investing in legitimate businesses. In addition, the election of these individuals to the local security forces, as well as the patronage they have at their disposal on the ground, serve as a powerful cover for them in Cali. The rise in organized crime in Nigeria is often associated with the fall in oil prices in the early 1980s and the resulting disorganization of the Nigerian economy, which in the late 1970s was 95 percent dependent on export earnings. Nigerian criminal organizations have engaged in large-scale drug trafficking. They also engage in fraud and extortion, including credit card fraud and fraudulent activities related to commercial banks and government aid programs. They do not intervene in large-scale operations and prefer smaller operations, carrying out many such operations and tend to, as a rule, remain in the shadows. The most well-known forms of fraud used by Nigerian criminal organizations are called "Nigerian letter" fraud. Russian transnational crime arose in the depths of the same shadow economy of the USSR and in the circles of the party state farm nomenklatura, which had the opportunity to go abroad. The classic emergence of transnational organized crime in Russia falls on the late 80s and early 90s. The liberalization of foreign economic activity, the destruction of the single economic space of the USSR, the absence of effectively guarded borders contributed to the flourishing of Russian organized crime,

Ukraine is no exception in the activities of various organized crime syndicates. Its favorable geopolitical location allowed it to become a key hub for drug trafficking and human trafficking, as well as for cybercrime, since some of the "hackers" have Ukrainian citizenship, and the level of Internet piracy is quite high. Ukrainian criminal organizations were quite successful in merging with political structures and creating a new type of activity of political institutions, namely the "mafia state". In the future, after the end of the COVID-19 pandemic, organizational-criminal syndicates will continue to quite strongly influence the level of the global shadow economy, however, more and more counteraction to transnational crime will gradually reduce their illegal activity.

 

Lagosha Dmitry, for UIP